Nanotechnology and Advanced Manufacturing BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

“OS&H for 21st Century Manufacturing”

WestON September 30, 2016

Click to access 15.Geraci_Nano_and_Advanced_.pdf

Nanotechnology and Advanced Manufacturing

“OS&H for 21st Century Manufacturing”

WestON September 30, 2016

Charles L. Geraci, Ph.D., CIH

Associate Director for Nanotechnology

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The findings and conclusions in this presentation have not been formally disseminated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy


• What is Nanotechnology? (Fast, I promise)

• Why is it important to NIOSH and to you?

• What has NOSH done?

• Where have all the Nanomaterials gone?

• What is Advanced Manufacturing and why is it a big deal?

Nanotechnology: A Review

Nanotechnology: 30 Second Review

Old: Material behavior driven by chemistry and making things from big pieces

Nanoscale Science: making materials one molecule at a time at the nano scale

New: Material behavior driven by size, shape, surface chemistry. More active and efficient

Result: New material properties and behavior: Higher or newer hazard?

Nanomaterial Science: Opening the 3rd Dimension of the Periodic Table

”Carbon just isn’t carbon anymore”

Your Grandfather’s Carbon



The Nanomaterial designer’s carbon

“Built” in the nm range

Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs)

• Carbons

– e.g., nanotubes, nanofibers, fullerene, graphene

• Oxides

– e.g., metal oxides, ceramics, TiO2, ZnO, SiO2, CeO2, Fe3O4

• Metals

– e.g., Ag, Fe, Al, Si, Zn, Cu, Ni

• Cellulose

– e.g., nano fibrils, nano crystals

• Semiconductors

– e.g., CdSe, CdS, InAs, InP

• Polymers/organics

– e.g., liposomes, dendrimers

NIOSH Response: A Research Program – A blend of lab and fields projects –

Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

• Established in 2004 to investigate new nanotechnology related hazards

• One of the first agencies to identify that exposures to engineered

nanomaterials (ENMs) could cause disease

• Pioneered techniques to generate aerosols of engineered

nanoparticles for animal testing

• First to show that certified respirators and controls can protect


• Published practical guidance on measuring exposures and summaries of field results

NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center Active in Ten Critical Areas

Toxicology &

Recommendations & Guidance

Internal Dose


Measurement Methods

Informatics & Applications

Global Collaborations

Fire & Explosion Safety

Exposure Assessment

Epidemiology & Surveillance

Risk Assessment

Controls & PPE

Centrally managed and coordinated for maximum impact

Priority Goals for 2015- 2016

1. Increase understanding of new hazards and related health risks to nanomaterial workers and expand initial findings

2. Expand field investigations and the creation of guidance on hazards, risks, and risk management approaches for workers, employers, agencies and policy makers.

3. Support epidemiologic studies for nanomaterial workers including medical and exposure studies

4. Assess and promote national and international adherence with risk management guidance.

5. Link to Advanced Manufacturing initiative

Nanotoxicology Program: Current Directions

1. Toxicological Characterization of Emerging Nanomaterials

2. Mechanisms of Action of Established Biological Outcomes: Fibrosis and Cancer

3. High Throughput In Vitro Assays for Predicting Toxicity: Mode of Action of Nanomaterials

4. Occupationally Relevant Exposures/Doses: Partnering With Epidemiology and Industry

5. Extra-pulmonary Responses to Respiratory Exposure

6. Biomarkers for Exposure and Biological Outcome

7. Effect of phys/chem modification on biological response

Exploratory Field Research

Exposure Assessment in the Real World

Exposure Assessment

NIOSH Performs On-site Research

• To date, over 100 visits to 65 different sites

• Diversity in sites, materials, and applications

• Focused efforts: CNT/CNF, Controls

• Evaluate processes and personal exposures

• Use and extend existing methods

• Partnershipswiththeprivatesectorisakey

to success

• Guidanceandrecommendationsgivento employers

• Summaryresultspublished

Connecting the Key Exposure Assessment Elements


Exposure Metrics


Exposure Assessment

Dose metrics

Toxicology Assessment

Evaluating Physical Hazards

Airborne Dust Generation

Dry Powder Operations Factors Influencing Airborne Dust


Health Concern


Powder Quantity Type of Operation Engineering Controls Ventilation

Safety Concern

Recent Activities and Outputs

Guidance for Engineering Controls

Assistance for Small to Medium Enterprises

Draft CIB on Silver Nanomaterials


Nanotechnology Guidance Documents



Nanotechnology is ‘Alive and Well’

The cumulative public in nanotechnology since 2001 is over $24 Billion – matched by private funding.

Is EHS important?

It is one of the national strategic goals with nearly $900 Million invested.

What is still needed?

Translation of EHS research into practice!

Complicating the Task

• Applications research is moving faster that EHS research. Keeping pace with a moving target.

• No overt cases of injury or illness reported. Have we been good or lucky?

• “Nano has gone stealth”. Its all now Advanced Materials

• Reporting and tracking requirements are minimal. Likely

• A precautionary approach, though warranted, is difficult to sell. See No. 2.

to stay that way.

Interface of Two Key National Initiatives



Advanced Manufacturing

Why is this so important to learn about Advanced Manufacturing?

Manufacturing: Still a Huge Economic Impact

NIST MEP, 2015

Average Mfg. wages 24% higher

Manufacturers contributed $2.17 trillion to the U.S. (NAM News)

If U.S. Manufacturing were a separate country, 9th largest economy


U.S. manufacturing fundamentals strong again: 900,000 direct jobs added since recession


“Industry and Manufacturing in the Future” is not too far off. Focus on AM


“Capability Based Customer Fulfilment”

Source: The Future of Manufacturing: P. Manenti

Merging Initiatives

Nanotechnology: AKA Nanomaterial Science

—Has Given Rise to——

Advanced Material Science Nanomaterials, Nano-bio materials, Synthetic

Biology products, Functional materials, and more —All Moving into—

Advanced Manufacturing Technology

Defining ‘Advanced Manufacturing’

We are moving from the Industrial Age to the Information Age, but we still need to make things.

How we make things is evolving from mechanical processes to technology based processes.

Many of these new processes will use advanced materials created by Nanotechnology

Attributes of Advanced Manufacturing

• Heavy and increasing use of information technology

• Modeling and simulations in manufacturing processes

• Closing the innovation to commercialization gap

• Flexibility to meet customer need

• Sustainable manufacturing (CLG says this must include worker safety)

Trends, Examples?

• Semiconductors

– Foundation of information technology applications – Rapid research to improve performance

– New materials and structural technology

• Advanced (Nano) Materials

– Superior performance properties tuned needs – Enhanced performance; reduced quantities

– Computational engineering

More Trends, Examples?

• Additive manufacturing: Not new but evolving – 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping, Layering and

Deposition, Selective Laser Sintering , and more, • Synthetic Biology

– Manufacture biological substances from engineered biological systems

– Biomanufacturing: using biological templates or processes for manufacture of materials systems

The US Landscape

National Network of Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI) – rebranded as Manufacturing USA

– FY 2016 Budget: $1 Billion investment matched by private sector

– Create 15 Manufacturing Innovation ‘Centers’ over the next 5 years, as many as 45 in 10 years

Where does Advanced Manufacturing Fit?

Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP/PCAST)

Executive Office of the President

Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (hosted by DOC – NIST)

NSTC – Advanced Manufacturing Subcommittee


NIOSH as a collaborator

High “Involvement”



Point AM

Life Cycle of Two Initiatives. A common Thread?



Scale Up Early Production

Basic Research

Proof of Concept


Manufacturing Innovation Institutes so far…

America Makes

Additive Manufacturing DOD–Youngstown OH


Digital Mfg & Design Innovation DOD – Chicago IL


Lightweight & Modern Metals DOD – Detroit MI


Power Electronics Manufacturing DOE – Raleigh NC


Adv. Composites Manufacturing DOE – Knoxville TN

Integrated Photonics DOD Rochester NY

Flexible Hybrid Electronics DOD

San Jose, CA

Smart Manufacturing DOE

Los Angeles, CA

Advanced Functional Fabrics DOD


Advanced Tissue Fabrication DOD Solicitation

Robots in Manufacturing Environments

DOD Solicitation

Additive Manufacturing: a simple view


Additive Manufacturing: Now

Market Impact

Image source: Lux Research Inc., 2013

Additive Manufacturing Institute: Key Objectives

• Advanced/nano materials

• Growing numbers

• Exposures not well known

• Entry barriers are low for small

The technology is being taught, but does it include health and safety?


Skilled workers should be skilled in OS&H.

3D Printing is not just for desk tops.

Advanced Composites Institute Profile

IACMI, The Composites Institute Knoxville, TN

Launched June 16, 2015

Agency sponsor: DOE

Startup funding: $70M public, $159M co-investment

+344,000 square feet in five core regions regions – composite manufacturing, laboratory, instructional and collaboration space


Lightweight & Modern Metals in Manufacturing

Many of the metals and processes were under the NNI as a private- public partnerships.

• FullEHScharacterization?

• Exposure and risk potential? • Safepractices?

Digital Manufacturing

A new interface between the worker and the intelligent supply chain and the intelligent workplace

How will the worker deal with:

• Distributed manufacturing

• Direct interface with supply


• Advanced interface with

manufacturing processes

The OS&H challenges are not new and are likely a blend of material and process safety, work organization, and stress.

Occupational Safety and Health Opportunities

• Nanomaterials

– Nanometals (powders, additives)

– Additives and enablers (CNT, metals)

• Complex Environment – Multiple chemicals

– Biologicals – Energy

• ExposuresandControls – Material Handling

– Emissions

– Waste management

– Machine maintenance

Risk Management

– Distributed workplace

– Dominated by small businesses – Communication

Thank you!

Charles L. Geraci, Jr, Ph.D., CIH

Associate Director for Nanotechnology

Published by lslolo

I am a targeted Individual in the county of KANKAKEE Illinois since 2015- current. I became a victim via my employer which is the state of Illinois Department of Human Services.

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