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The Military Psychology Section is aimed towards the field of psychology working with the United States Military, Veterans, the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This section focuses on a variety of military psychological issues and current related activities that take place in Illinois. The section helps by assisting in educating civilian, enlisted and commissioned officer psychologists through advocacy, education, holding workshops, working collaboratively with other local military associations and organizations, policy and legislation, and providing IPA presence at military/veteran conventions in Illinois.

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2. Council voted to adopt as APA policy the Resolution to Amend the 2006 and 2013 Council Resolutions to Clarify the Roles of Psychologists Related to Interrogation and Detainee Welfare in National Security Settings, to Further Implement the 2008 Petition Resolution, and to Safeguard Against Acts of Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in All Settings.

2. The Board will create clear procedures for appointing and making public the members of Task Forces, Commissions, etc. Procedures for appointment will include (a) a standard and robust conflict of interest assessment and (b) process for assuring needed content expertise and diversities.

3. The Board will ensure that on the APA website where the Responses of the APA Ethics Committee to Questions, Comments, and Vignettes Regarding APA Policy on the Role of Psychologists in National Security-Related Activities is located, a disclaimer will appear indicating the document is not relevant or vali

Ethics Committee to consider pursuing an appropriate course of action in as expeditious a manner as possible to incorporate into the Ethics Code the following prohibitions surrounding psychologist participation in national security interrogations, as set forth in the Resolution to Amend the 2006 and 2013 Council Resolutions to Clarify the Roles of Psychologists Related to Interrogation and Detainee Welfare in National Security Settings, to Further Implement the 2008 Petition Resolution, and to Safeguard Against Acts of Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in All Settings, adopted by Council at its August 2015 meeting.

Be it further resolved that, in keeping with Principle A (Beneficence and Nonmaleficence) of the Ethics Code to “take care to do no harm,”[1] psychologists shall not conduct, supervise, be in the presence of, or otherwise assist any national security interrogations[2] for any military or intelligence entities, including private contractors working on their behalf, nor advise on conditions of confinement insofar as these might facilitate such an interrogation[3]. This prohibition does not apply to domestic law enforcement interrogations or domestic detention settings where detainees are afforded all of the protections of the United States Constitution, including the 5th Amendment rights against self-incrimination (“Miranda” rights) and 6th Amendment rights to “effective assistance” of legal counsel.

(The above request is consistent with the one included in the implementation plan of the August 2015 Council Agenda Item on NBI #23B.)

The Board voted to approve following actions under its purview. The final language on the motions below were approved on the Board’s Jan. 19, 2016, conference call.

9. The Board asks that the Interim CEO provide a report to the Board on work done to assess current processes and procedures and checks and balances to assure appropriate oversight by supervisors of staff with respect to professionalism, decision-making, communication, interpersonal interactions, financial management and adherence to APA core values. The Board also requests that the Interim CEO provide information about ways in which, if any, such processes and procedures and checks and balances need to be improved and steps being taken for such improvement. Updates on steps being taken should occur at appropriate intervals by the Interim CEO and the CEO. The Board understands that such oversight must be balanced with appropriate levels of autonomy for staff that communicate appreciation for their contributions and competence, support for their professional development and encouragement of their creativity. This balance between oversight and autonomy should support a culture of collaboration, transparency, appreciation, mutual respect and individual and organizational integrity.

10. The Board recommends that APA actively promote the application of psychological science and practice to address human rights issues and enhance its engagement in human rights matters including through collaboration with other organizations. Developing a systematic plan for such engagement can be accomplished in part through the Board’s request that an Advisory Committee on Human Rights be established for a one-year period. The mission of this Advisory Committee is to: examine APA’s recent and ongoing work related to human rights; review governance group comments/recommendations; propose a working definition of human rights for the organization; recommend important human rights issues and activities to pursue; and consider the best structures for APA to ensure ongoing and visible commitment to human rights (which may include the establishment of an Office on Human Rights). The Advisory Committee is to be composed of APA members and nonmembers with expertise in human rights and will build upon the activities of the Work Group for Human Rights of the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest.

The Board recommends that the Education Directorate promote a focus on human rights as a core element of psychology education and training from high school through continuing professional development.

12. The Board voted to approve the following statement in recognition of APA members who work in military settings: The Board acknowledges and appreciates the valuable and ethical behavior of the members of the American Psychological Association who work in military settings who make important and honorable contributions to those they serve and to the greater society. We commend the services they provide to military members and veterans and their families, as well as to the organizations in which they serve. The Board is committed to working actively and collaboratively with military psychologists.

[1] Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (2002, as amended in 2010), American Psychologist, 57, 12, pp. 1060-1073.

[2] For the purposes of this policy statement, “national security interrogations” refer to the interrogation of any detainee in the custody of any agency or subsidiary agency that reports to the Director of National Intelligence, the Secretary of Defense, the Director of Homeland Security, or the National Security Council, including joint elements such as the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group. This also includes any operations by those agencies with any allied governments or non-state actors, including private contractors. This does not include those detainees held under domestic law enforcement where Miranda Rights and the U.S. Constitution apply.

[3] Psychologists may provide consultation with regard to policy pertaining to information gathering methods which are humane so long as they do not violate the prohibitions of this Resolution and are not related to any specific national security interrogation or detention conditions.

Board and Council Actions Related to the Report of the Independent Review Relating to APA Ethics Guidelines, National Security Interrogations and Torture

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Board and Council Actions Related to the Report of the Independent Review Relating to APA Ethics Guidelines, National Security Interrogations and Torture

Council action taken

Council voted at its August 2015 meeting to take the following actions:

1. Council approves the establishment of a blue ribbon panel to evaluate and recommend changes to APA ethics processes (including, but not limited to, the establishment of a chief ethics officer, relation between ethics education and the ethics adjudication function, review of the efficacy and utility of the investigative and adjudication processes, and attention to the potential conflicts between human rights and other considerations), based on an assessment of current practices and procedures as well as benchmarking against ethics processes of other professional organizations. The panel will be appointed collaboratively by the Board and CLT and will include psychologist members and nonmembers of APA and relevant experts from other fields. A matrix of expertise needed will be composed of and will include diversity of perspective, specialty, practice setting and human diversity. As part of this process the panel will be charged with ensuring that the process explicitly invites, explores and does active research to generate and ensure feedback and voice from general members through direct forums. The panel will report back to Council in August 2016.

2. Council voted to adopt as APA policy the Resolution to Amend the 2006 and 2013 Council Resolutions to Clarify the Roles of Psychologists Related to Interrogation and Detainee Welfare in National Security Settings, to Further Implement the 2008 Petition Resolution, and to Safeguard Against Acts of Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in All Settings.

3. Council voted to request the development of a statement of principles regarding conflict of interest for each board/committee/task force/Council member to sign on an annual basis. A subgroup of members of Council, boards, committees and the membership will be formed by the Council Leadership Team to create virtually such a statement which will be finalized at the February 2016 Council meeting.

4. In executive session, Council voted to approve the following motion: Council requests that incurred costs to date related to the Independent Review be made public, with recognition that additional costs will be incurred. Updates on the costs will be provided in September and when all final costs are available. The costs as provided by the CFO will be provided along with the context of APA’s overall financial situation. The results of this vote shall be included in the Council minutes. The costs billed from Sidley Austin, Wilmer Hale, and Powell Tate for professional fees and expenses in connection with the Independent Review are $4.3 million through July 15, 2015. A final report will be provided once all of the costs have been billed. The costs will be paid from the net assets of the Association, which were $61.5 million on Dec. 31, 2014, per the audited financial statements.

Council action pending

The Board voted to recommend that Council take the following action at its February 2016 or other future meeting. The final language for the recommended Council actions below was approved by the Board at its Sept. 19 meeting. The motions were subsequently revised by the Council Leadership Team based on feedback from Council, boards and committees, ethnic minority psychological associations, and divisions and state psychological associations. Revised versions are included on Council’s February 2016 agenda.

1. Recommend that Council approves that the Board and Council will collaborate to create governance guidelines that provide a framework for the appropriate oversight of elected and appointed officials and members of leadership groups, (e.g. Council, Board of Directors, boards and committees, divisional executive committees, task forces, etc.), in the execution of their roles and responsibilities to ensure their adherence to the highest standards of professional behavior in accordance with APA ethical guidelines.

2. Recommend that Council approves that the Board and Council will collaborate to establish civility principles and procedures, for all forms of communication (in-person and online) within and on behalf of APA, that aim to promote opportunities for inclusion of a diversity of voices and perspectives and adherence to the highest standards of professionalism.

3. Recommend that Council amends the Guidelines for Council Resolutions to ensure that all content contained in future resolutions be anchored in APA’s core values, as well as values promoting human rights, health and welfare and ethics.

4. Recommend that that the Board and Council consider ethics, human rights and social justice as central foci of the next Strategic Plan. This will assist in setting the organization’s ethical compass and asserting our commitment to “do no harm” as a core value.

Board action taken

The Board voted to approve following actions under its purview. The final language on the motions below were approved at the Board’s Sept. 19, 2015, meeting:

1. The Board will establish a mechanism for immediate oversight in the processing of filed ethics complaints, including review of current adjudication and investigative procedures, and transparency and accuracy in the disclosure of current ethics office practices.

2. The Board will create clear procedures for appointing and making public the members of Task Forces, Commissions, etc. Procedures for appointment will include (a) a standard and robust conflict of interest assessment and (b) process for assuring needed content expertise and diversities.

3. The Board will ensure that on the APA website where the Responses of the APA Ethics Committee to Questions, Comments, and Vignettes Regarding APA Policy on the Role of Psychologists in National Security-Related Activities is located, a disclaimer will appear indicating the document is not relevant or valid.

4. The Board of Directors has determined there is an urgent concern about the Ethics Code that should not be delayed until the next major revision of the Code. Therefore, the Board asks the Ethics Committee to consider pursuing an appropriate course of action in as expeditious a manner as possible to incorporate into the Ethics Code the following prohibitions surrounding psychologist participation in national security interrogations, as set forth in the Resolution to Amend the 2006 and 2013 Council Resolutions to Clarify the Roles of Psychologists Related to Interrogation and Detainee Welfare in National Security Settings, to Further Implement the 2008 Petition Resolution, and to Safeguard Against Acts of Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in All Settings, adopted by Council at its August 2015 meeting:

Be it further resolved that, in keeping with Principle A (Beneficence and Nonmaleficence) of the Ethics Code to “take care to do no harm,”[1] psychologists shall not conduct, supervise, be in the presence of, or otherwise assist any national security interrogations[2] for any military or intelligence entities, including private contractors working on their behalf, nor advise on conditions of confinement insofar as these might facilitate such an interrogation[3]. This prohibition does not apply to domestic law enforcement interrogations or domestic detention settings where detainees are afforded all of the protections of the United States Constitution, including the 5th Amendment rights against self-incrimination (“Miranda” rights) and 6th Amendment rights to “effective assistance” of legal counsel.

(The above request is consistent with the one included in the implementation plan of the August 2015 Council Agenda Item on NBI #23B.)

5. At the request of the Board, an open meeting on the Independent Review Report will be held at both fall Consolidated Meetings. Boards and committees will be informed that Board members are available to attend meetings of any boards and committees who would like to discuss the Independent Review Report at their respective fall meetings. The Board supports the Council Leadership Team’s plans to seek comments from boards and committees on the Board and Council recommended motions related to the IR Report.

6. The Board will create implementing criteria and procedures for emergency action by the Board in keeping with the authority established in the Bylaws.

7. The Board voted to postpone the following motion until the Conflict of Interest Policies Workgroup has completed its work:

8. The Board will evaluate and modify, as needed, conflict of interest policies regarding financial, policy or relationship-based conflicts, and other associated processes to ensure that the policy is understood and followed. A mechanism will be developed to educate, enhance awareness and provide ongoing updates to members of governing bodies and advisory groups of APA regarding those conflict of interest policies.

The Board voted to approve following actions under its purview. The final language on the motions below were approved on the Board’s Jan. 19, 2016, conference call.

9. The Board asks that the Interim CEO provide a report to the Board on work done to assess current processes and procedures and checks and balances to assure appropriate oversight by supervisors of staff with respect to professionalism, decision-making, communication, interpersonal interactions, financial management and adherence to APA core values. The Board also requests that the Interim CEO provide information about ways in which, if any, such processes and procedures and checks and balances need to be improved and steps being taken for such improvement. Updates on steps being taken should occur at appropriate intervals by the Interim CEO and the CEO. The Board understands that such oversight must be balanced with appropriate levels of autonomy for staff that communicate appreciation for their contributions and competence, support for their professional development and encouragement of their creativity. This balance between oversight and autonomy should support a culture of collaboration, transparency, appreciation, mutual respect and individual and organizational integrity.

10. The Board recommends that APA actively promote the application of psychological science and practice to address human rights issues and enhance its engagement in human rights matters including through collaboration with other organizations. Developing a systematic plan for such engagement can be accomplished in part through the Board’s request that an Advisory Committee on Human Rights be established for a one-year period. The mission of this Advisory Committee is to: examine APA’s recent and ongoing work related to human rights; review governance group comments/recommendations; propose a working definition of human rights for the organization; recommend important human rights issues and activities to pursue; and consider the best structures for APA to ensure ongoing and visible commitment to human rights (which may include the establishment of an Office on Human Rights). The Advisory Committee is to be composed of APA members and nonmembers with expertise in human rights and will build upon the activities of the Work Group for Human Rights of the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest.

11. The Board recommends that the Education Directorate promote a focus on human rights as a core element of psychology education and training from high school through continuing professional development.

12. The Board voted to approve the following statement in recognition of APA members who work in military settings: The Board acknowledges and appreciates the valuable and ethical behavior of the members of the American Psychological Association who work in military settings who make important and honorable contributions to those they serve and to the greater society. We commend the services they provide to military members and veterans and their families, as well as to the organizations in which they serve. The Board is committed to working actively and collaboratively with military psychologists.

[1] Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (2002, as amended in 2010), American Psychologist, 57, 12, pp. 1060-1073.

[2] For the purposes of this policy statement, “national security interrogations” refer to the interrogation of any detainee in the custody of any agency or subsidiary agency that reports to the Director of National Intelligence, the Secretary of Defense, the Director of Homeland Security, or the National Security Council, including joint elements such as the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group. This also includes any operations by those agencies with any allied governments or non-state actors, including private contractors. This does not include those detainees held under domestic law enforcement where Miranda Rights and the U.S. Constitution apply.

[3] Psychologists may provide consultation with regard to policy pertaining to information gathering methods which are humane so long as they do not violate the prohibitions of this Resolution and are not related to any specific national security interrogation or detention conditions.

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Board and Council Actions Related to the Report of the Independent Review Relating to APA Ethics Guidelines, National Security Interrogations and Torture

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