#Cybertorture finally named & recognized by UN Special Raporteur, Nils Melzer. This is what we the victims of technopsychopaths at the 80 Fusion Centers across the USA are talking about. Need a biospecimen for heinous experiments? Just order s.o. be declared a terrorist.

#Cybertorture finally named & recognized by UN Special Raporteur, Nils Melzer. This is what we the victims of technopsychopaths at the 80 Fusion Centers across the USA are talking about. Need a biospecimen for heinous experiments? Just order s.o. be declared a terrorist. No proof

Geordie Rose – Quantum Computing: Artificial Intelligence Is Here. University Illinois/University Chicago Super Computer Quantum Summit from Illinois SmartState DEFENSE, AEROSPACE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL INSTITUTE HEALTH, NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION,, MILITARY CONTRACTORS, UNIVERSITIES partners list for the ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX PARTNERS. https://youtu.be/PqN_2jDVbOU

http://www.youtube.com/watch

Geordie Rose – Quantum Computing: Artificial Intelligence Is Here. University Illinois/University Chicago Super Computer Quantum Summit from Illinois SmartState DEFENSE, AEROSPACE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL INSTITUTE HEALTH, NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION, UNIVERSITIES partners list for the ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE https://youtu.be/PqN_2jDVbOU

http://www.youtube.com/watch

What are Brainwaves ? Types of Brain waves | EEG sensor and brain wave – UK

WHAT ARE BRAINWAVES? At the root of all our thoughts, emotions and behaviours is the communication between neurons within our brains. Brainwaves are produced by synchronised electrical pulses from masses of neurons communicating with each other. Brainwaves are detected using sensors placed on the scalp. They are divided into bandwidths to describe their functions (below), but are bestContinue reading “What are Brainwaves ? Types of Brain waves | EEG sensor and brain wave – UK”

What are the Different types of Brainwave Entrainment? – UK

Brain training excellence since 2007 YOU ARE HERE Home TYPES OF BRAINWAVE ENTRAINMENT   Because half the useful brainwave frequencies (.3-40Hz) are below the hearing range of the human ear (20Hz-20,000Hz), several techniques have been developed to overcome this physical limitation.    This is a quick overview of the different techniques, with a short sampleContinue reading “What are the Different types of Brainwave Entrainment? – UK”

Today is UN International Day in Support of Victim

Today is UN International Day in Support of Victims of Torture. The type of modern-day torture that I and 3 million innocent U.S. citizens are being tortured with, by illegally using electromagnetic weapons and through-the-wall radar to enter our homes and brutally assault our bodies around-the-clock, by illegally performing “Weapons Testing,” has been defined byContinue reading “Today is UN International Day in Support of Victim”

CYBER SECURITY CYBER STALKING TARGETING FEDERAL LAWS

These are the Federal Stalking laws for us to use: Case 1:20-mj-02398-MBB *SEALED*Document 3-2 Filed 06/11/2020 Page 3 of 51 Title 18, United States Code, Section 2261A, the federal cyberstalking statute,provides in pertinent part: (2) with the intent to kill, injure, harass, intimidate, or place under surveillance with  intent to kill, injure, harass, or intimidate anotherContinue reading “CYBER SECURITY CYBER STALKING TARGETING FEDERAL LAWS”

THEACTIVITIES OFDOD INTELLIGENCE COMPONENTS THAT AFFECTUNITED STATES PERSONSDECEMBER 1982UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR POLICYDoD 52401-R (HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION)

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSEPROCEDURES GOVERNING THEACTIVITIES OFDOD INTELLIGENCE COMPONENTS THAT AFFECTUNITED STATESPERSONSDECEMBER 1982UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR POLICYDoD 52401-Rhttps://secureservercdn.net/198.71.233.138/q0k.a5d.myftpupload.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/US-DOD-Directive-5240.1R-Procedure-13.pdf DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSEPROCEDURES GOVERNING THEACTIVITIES OFDOD INTELLIGENCE COMPONENTS THAT AFFECTUNITED STATESPERSONSDECEMBER 1982UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR POLICYDoD 52401-RFOREWORDThis DoD regulation sets forth procedures governing the activities of DoD intelligence components that affect United States persons. It implements DoDContinue reading “THEACTIVITIES OFDOD INTELLIGENCE COMPONENTS THAT AFFECTUNITED STATES PERSONSDECEMBER 1982UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR POLICYDoD 52401-R (HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION)”

Same as my story injected with syringe via a shot. Brain Research with universities, defense and intelligence agencies. Same as Illinois SmartState Military Industrial Complex university OFNILLINOIS Urbana c hip AI GN list. Mind Control – Wires in the Brain .. .Deborah Tavares 01-07-2015 on the … https://youtu.be/d933ac8zYGE

http://www.youtube.com/watch

The Virtual 2020 BRAIN Initiative Investigators Meetinghttps://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/2020-6th-annual-brain-initiative-investigators-virtual-meetingMENUMeeting Begins 10:30 AM EDT June 1, 20202020 6th annual BRAIN Initiative Investigators Virtual MeetingREGISTER NOW FOR ON DEMANDWe appreciate as the world continues to wrestle with adjusting to the consequence of the coronavirus outbreak, and we at NIH continue to work diligently and thoughtfully to try to find ways to address your diverse needs. After exploring multiple options for the 2020 BRAIN Initiative® Investigators Meeting, we have determined the safest, most responsible option for the BRAIN community and all interested parties is to hold this conference as a virtual event.We hope you will join us starting May 27, 2020 to explore on-demand content. Meeting programming to include broadcast of scientific presentations with live Question and Answer will begin at 10:30am EDT on Monday, June 1 and extend through 6:30pm EDT on Tuesday, June 2, 2020. Content will be available on-demand for 12-months following the event. To access the virtual event, remember to log in with the same email that you used to register, using your registration confirmation number as your password, or if you are an existing LabRoots user, your normal LabRoots password.The BRAIN Initiative® Investigators Meeting will convene BRAIN Initiative awardees, staff, and leadership from the contributing federal agencies (NIH, NSF, DARPA, IARPA, and FDA), plus representatives and investigators from participating non-federal organizations, and members of the media, public, and Congress. The purpose of this open meeting is to provide a forum for discussing exciting scientific developments and potential new directions, and to identify areas for collaboration and research coordination.Federal BRAIN awardees should refer to their agency-specific email and/or federal project/program manager for additional instructions and details regarding participation in this meeting.The target audience for this meeting includes:Federally funded and non-federally funded BRAIN Initiative investigatorsNon-federal organizations and groups invested in the BRAIN InitiativeBRAIN Initiative-related investigators at largeFederal staffMembers of CongressPatient and advocacy groupsMedia and general publicFor general questions about meeting content and scientific programming:BrainInitiativeConferences@mail.nih.govFor registration questions:NINDS Events Team, Kathy Berry kberry@infinityconferences.com

You are viewing archived BRAIN Initiative content that is no longer current but is available for reference and record keeping purposes.Town Hall & Reception at the 2015 Society for Neuroscience Meeting in Chicago, IL. When: Tuesday, October 20th, 2015 6:30-9:00 pm. My workplace harassment began here. Where: McCormick Place Convention Center Room S103

ILLINOIS FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND UNIVERSITIES BRAIN INITIATIVE RESEARCH. MY TARGETING BEGAN WHEN THIS WAS DONE in 2015. NIH, NIMH& FDA IS UNDER HEALTH HUMAN MY EMPLOY. DARPA & IARPA are DEFENSE AND INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES. NSF. KAVLI AND PRIVATE CORPORATIONS ARE UNDER UNIVERSITIES https://braininitiative.nih.gov/News-Events/event/brain-initiative-2015-updates-and-outreach The BRAIN Initiative in 2015: Updates and Outreach You are viewingContinue reading “You are viewing archived BRAIN Initiative content that is no longer current but is available for reference and record keeping purposes.Town Hall & Reception at the 2015 Society for Neuroscience Meeting in Chicago, IL. When: Tuesday, October 20th, 2015 6:30-9:00 pm. My workplace harassment began here. Where: McCormick Place Convention Center Room S103”

ILLINOIS FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND UNIVERSITIES BRAIN INITIATIVE RESEARCH. My targeting began when this was done in 2015. NIH & FDA IS under human services my employ. https://braininitiative.nih.gov/News-Events/event/brain-initiative-2015-updates-and-outreach The BRAIN Initiative in 2015: Updates and Outreach You are viewing archived BRAIN Initiative content that is no longer current but is available for reference and record keeping purposes. Town Hall & Reception at the 2015 Society for Neuroscience Meeting in Chicago, IL. When: Tuesday, October 20th, 2015 6:30-9:00 pm Where: McCormick Place Convention Center Room S103 Additional Event Information: Description: This interactive panel discussion/Q&A session will feature updates on activities and opportunities offered by the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Representatives from federal agencies, private research foundations and universities will be present. A reception with speakers will immediately follow. For details on registration, speaker names, and event contact information, we will continue to update this website regularly. Speakers: Kristen Bowsher, Ph.D. (FDA) Miyoung Chun, Ph.D. (The Kavli Foundation) Catherine Cotell, Ph.D. (IARPA) Greg Farber, Ph.D. (NIMH) Walter Koroshetz, M.D. (NINDS) Allan Jones, Ph.D. (Allen Institute for Brain Science) Jim Olds, Ph.D. (NSF) Alyssa Picchini-Schaffer, Ph.D. (Simons Foundation) Justin Sanchez, Ph.D. (DARPA) Nelson Spruston, Ph.D. (HHMI/Janelia Research Campus) Program Agenda: 6:30-6:40pm​ – The BRAIN Initiative: Taking the Next Steps Walter Koroshetz, M.D., Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) on behalf of the NIH BRAIN IC Directors Committee Panel Discussions with Federal Agencies and Private Foundations Updates on BRAIN Initiative Activities and Funding Opportunities 6:40-7:10pm​ – Panel 1: Federal Agencies Greg Farber, Ph.D., Director, Office of Technology Development and Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) James Olds, Ph.D., Assistant Director, Directorate for Biological Sciences, National Science Foundation (NSF) Justin Sanchez, Ph.D., Program Manager, Biological Technologies Office, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Catherine Cotell, Ph.D., Program Manager, Director, Office of Incisive Analysis, Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) Kristen Bowsher, Ph.D., Division of Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 7:10-7:25pm​ – Question and Answer Session 7:25-7:45pm​ – Panel 2: Private Foundations Allan Jones, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer, Allen Institute for Brain Science Miyoung Chun, Ph.D., Executive Vice President of Science Programs, The Kavli Foundation Alyssa Picchini-Schaffer, Ph.D., Chief Scientist and Fellow, Senior Scientist, Simons Foundation Collaboration on the Global Brain Nelson Spruston, Ph.D., Scientific Program Director, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Research Campus 7:25-7:45pm​ – Reception sponsored by the Kavli Foundation Universities & Private Groups Attending (PDF – 27.1KB) https://www.braininitiative.nih.gov/meetings/SFNOct2015.htm Ms. Adams

The BRAIN Initiative in 2015: Updates and Outreach You are viewing archived BRAIN Initiative content that is no longer current but is available for reference and record keeping purposes. Town Hall & Reception at the 2015 Society for Neuroscience Meeting in Chicago, IL. When: Tuesday, October 20th, 2015 6:30-9:00 pm Where: McCormick Place Convention CenterContinue reading “ILLINOIS FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND UNIVERSITIES BRAIN INITIATIVE RESEARCH. My targeting began when this was done in 2015. NIH & FDA IS under human services my employ. https://braininitiative.nih.gov/News-Events/event/brain-initiative-2015-updates-and-outreach The BRAIN Initiative in 2015: Updates and Outreach You are viewing archived BRAIN Initiative content that is no longer current but is available for reference and record keeping purposes. Town Hall & Reception at the 2015 Society for Neuroscience Meeting in Chicago, IL. When: Tuesday, October 20th, 2015 6:30-9:00 pm Where: McCormick Place Convention Center Room S103 Additional Event Information: Description: This interactive panel discussion/Q&A session will feature updates on activities and opportunities offered by the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Representatives from federal agencies, private research foundations and universities will be present. A reception with speakers will immediately follow. For details on registration, speaker names, and event contact information, we will continue to update this website regularly. Speakers: Kristen Bowsher, Ph.D. (FDA) Miyoung Chun, Ph.D. (The Kavli Foundation) Catherine Cotell, Ph.D. (IARPA) Greg Farber, Ph.D. (NIMH) Walter Koroshetz, M.D. (NINDS) Allan Jones, Ph.D. (Allen Institute for Brain Science) Jim Olds, Ph.D. (NSF) Alyssa Picchini-Schaffer, Ph.D. (Simons Foundation) Justin Sanchez, Ph.D. (DARPA) Nelson Spruston, Ph.D. (HHMI/Janelia Research Campus) Program Agenda: 6:30-6:40pm​ – The BRAIN Initiative: Taking the Next Steps Walter Koroshetz, M.D., Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) on behalf of the NIH BRAIN IC Directors Committee Panel Discussions with Federal Agencies and Private Foundations Updates on BRAIN Initiative Activities and Funding Opportunities 6:40-7:10pm​ – Panel 1: Federal Agencies Greg Farber, Ph.D., Director, Office of Technology Development and Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) James Olds, Ph.D., Assistant Director, Directorate for Biological Sciences, National Science Foundation (NSF) Justin Sanchez, Ph.D., Program Manager, Biological Technologies Office, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Catherine Cotell, Ph.D., Program Manager, Director, Office of Incisive Analysis, Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) Kristen Bowsher, Ph.D., Division of Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 7:10-7:25pm​ – Question and Answer Session 7:25-7:45pm​ – Panel 2: Private Foundations Allan Jones, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer, Allen Institute for Brain Science Miyoung Chun, Ph.D., Executive Vice President of Science Programs, The Kavli Foundation Alyssa Picchini-Schaffer, Ph.D., Chief Scientist and Fellow, Senior Scientist, Simons Foundation Collaboration on the Global Brain Nelson Spruston, Ph.D., Scientific Program Director, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Research Campus 7:25-7:45pm​ – Reception sponsored by the Kavli Foundation Universities & Private Groups Attending (PDF – 27.1KB) https://www.braininitiative.nih.gov/meetings/SFNOct2015.htm Ms. Adams”

Patents of Mind Control and Behavior Modification TechnologiesNov13on 13. November 2017 at 19:53Posted In: English, Mind Control / Electronic Weapons HarassmentNervous system excitation device – US Patent 3393279This invention relates to electromagnetic excitation of the nervous system of a mammal and pertains more parcularly to a method and apparatus for exciting the nervous system of a person with electromagnetic waves that are capable of causing that person to become conscious of information conveyed by the electromagnetic waves.It is an object of the present invention to provide a means of initiating controllable responses of the neuro senses without applying pressure waves or stress waves to the ears or bones. Another object of this invention is to provide a means of causing a person to receive an aural perception of the sound corresponding to the audio modulation of radio frequency electromagnetic waves that are coupled with the nervous system of the person.US Patent 3393279Apparatus for the treatment of neuropsychic and somatic diseases with heat, light, sound and vhf electromagnetic radiation – US Patent 3773049 AAn apparatus for the treatment of neuropsychic and somatic disorders wherein light-, sound-, VHF electromagnetic field-pulses and radiation from light-, sound-, VHF electromcagnetic field- and heat-sources, respectively, are simultaneously applied by means of a control unit to the patient’s central nervous system with a predermined repetition rate. The light radiation and sound radiation sources are made so as to exert an adequate and monotonous influence of the light-and sound-radiation on the patient’s visual analyzers and auditory analyzers, respectively.US Patent 3773049 AApparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves – US Patent 3951134Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject’s brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.US Patent 3951134Device for the induction of specific brain wave patterns – US Patent 4335710 ABrain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject are gradually induced without deleterious chemical or neurological side effects. A white noise generator has the spectral noise density of its output signal modulated in a manner similar to the brain wave patterns by a switching transistor within a spectrum modulator. The modulated white noise signal is amplified by output amplifier and converted to an audio signal by acoustic transducer. Ramp generator gradually increases the voltage received by and resultant output frequency of voltage controlled oscillator whereby switching transistor periodically shunts the high frequency components of the white noise signal to ground.US Patent 4335710 AHearing device – US Patent 4858612A method and apparatus for simulation of hearing in mammals by introduction of a plurality of microwaves into the region of the auditory cortex is shown and described. A microphone is used to transform sound signals into electrical signals which are in turn analyzed and processed to provide controls for generating a plurality of microwave signals at different frequencies. The multifrequency microwaves are then applied to the brain in the region of the auditory cortex. By this method sounds are perceived by the mammal which are representative of the original sound received by the microphone.US Patent 4858612Hearing system – US Patent 4877027 ASound is induced in the head of a person by radiating the head with microwaves in the range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz that are modulated with a particular waveform. The waveform consists of frequency modulated bursts. Each burst is made up of ten to twenty uniformly spaced pulses grouped tightly together. The burst width is between 500 nanoseconds and 100 microseconds. The pulse width is in the range of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond. The bursts are frequency modulated by the audio input to create the sensation of hearing in the person whose head is irradiated.US Patent 4877027 ASilent subliminal presentation system – US Patent 5159703A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude or frequency modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones or piezoelectric transducers. The modulated carriers may be transmitted directly in real time or may be conveniently recorded and stored on mechanical, magnetic or optical media for delayed or repeated transmission to the listener.US Patent 5159703Method of inducing mental, emotional and physical states of consciousness, including specific mental activity, in human beings – US Patent 5213562 AA method having applicability in replication of desired consciousness states; in the training of an individual to replicate such a state of consciousness without further audio stimulation; and in the transferring of such states from one human being to another through the imposition of one individual’s EEG, superimposed on desired stereo signals, on another individual, by inducement of a binaural beat phenomenon.US Patent 5213562 AMethod of and apparatus for inducing desired states of consciousness – US Patent 5356368 AImproved methods and apparatus for entraining human brain patterns, employing frequency following response (FFR) techniques, facilitate attainment of desired states of consciousness. In one embodiment, a plurality of electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms, characteristic of a given state of consciousness, are combined to yield an EEG waveform to which subjects may be susceptible more readily. In another embodiment, sleep patterns are reproduced based on observed brain patterns during portions of a sleep cycle; entrainment principles are applied to induce sleep. In yet another embodiment, entrainment principles are applied in the work environment, to induce and maintain a desired level of consciousness. A portable device also is described.US Patent 5356368 AMethod and an associated apparatus for remotely determining information as to person’s emotional state – US Patent 5507291 AIn a method for remotely determining information relating to a person’s emotional state, an waveform energy having a predetermined frequency and a predetermined intensity is generated and wirelessly transmitted towards a remotely located subject. Waveform energy emitted from the subject is detected and automatically analyzed to derive information relating to the individual’s emotional state. Physiological or physical parameters of blood pressure, pulse rate, pupil size, respiration rate and perspiration level are measured and compared with reference values to provide information utilizable in evaluating interviewee’s responses or possibly criminal intent in security sensitive areas.US Patent 5507291 AUltrasonic speech translator and communications system – US Patent 5539705A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system includes an ultrasonic transmitting device and an ultrasonic receiving device. The ultrasonic transmitting device accepts as input an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output.US Patent 5539705Communication system and method including brain wave analysis and/or use of brain activity – US Patent 6011991 AA system and method for enabling human beings to communicate by way of their monitored brain activity. The brain activity of an individual is monitored and transmitted to a remote location (e.g. by satellite). At the remote location, the monitored brain activity is compared with pre-recorded normalized brain activity curves, waveforms, or patterns to determine if a match or substantial match is found. If such a match is found, then the computer at the remote location determines that the individual was attempting to communicate the word, phrase, or thought corresponding to the matched stored normalized signal.US Patent 6011991 AAcoustic cannon – US 5973999 AAn acoustic cannon has a plurality of acoustic sources with output ends symmetrically arranged in a planar array about a central point. Pressure pulses are generated in each acoustic source at substantially the same time. The pressure pulses exit the output ends as sonic pulses. Interaction of the sonic pulses generates a Mach disk, a non-linear shock wave that travels along an axis perpendicular to the planar array with limited radial diffusion. The Mach disk retains the intensity of the sonic pulses for a time and a distance significantly longer than that achievable from a single sonic source. The acoustic cannon is useful as a non-lethal weapon to disperse crowds or disable a hostile target.US Patent 5973999 ASubliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous systems – US Patent 6017302 AIn human subjects, sensory resonances can be excited by subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses that are tuned to the resonance frequency. The 1/2 Hz sensory resonance affects the autonomic nervous system and may cause relaxation, drowsiness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near 1/2 Hz used. The effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include slowing of certain cortical processes, sleepiness, and disorientation. For these effects to occur, the acoustic intensity must lie in a certain deeply subliminal range. Suitable apparatus consists of a portable battery-powered source of weak subaudio acoustic radiation. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or sexual arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps treatment of insomnia, tremors, epileptic seizures, and anxiety disorders. There is further application as a nonlethal weapon that can be used in law enforcement standoff situations, for causing drowsiness and disorientation in targeted subjects. It is then preferable to use venting acoustic monopoles in the form of a device that inhales and exhales air with subaudio frequency.US Patent 6017302 ANervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitors – US Patent 6506148 B2Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject in response to stimulation of the skin with weak electromagnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near ½ Hz or 2.4 Hz, such as to excite a sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of sufficient amplitudes to cause such excitation. It is therefore possible to manipulate the nervous system of a subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or TV set. For the latter, the image pulsing may be imbedded in the program material, or it may be overlaid by modulating a video stream, either as an RF signal or as a video signal. The image displayed on a computer monitor may be pulsed effectively by a simple computer program. For certain monitors, pulsed electromagnetic fields capable of exciting sensory resonances in nearby subjects may be generated even as the displayed images are pulsed with subliminal intensity.Nervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitors – US Patent 6506148 B2US Patent 6506148 B2Apparatus for audibly communicating speech using the radio frequency hearing effect – US Patent 6587729 B2A modulation process with a fully suppressed carrier and input preprocessor filtering to produce an encoded output; for amplitude modulation (AM) and audio speech preprocessor filtering, intelligible subjective sound is produced when the encoded signal is demodulated using the RF Hearing Effect. Suitable forms of carrier suppressed modulation include single sideband (SSB) and carrier suppressed amplitude modulation (CSAM), with both sidebands present.US Patent 6587729 B2└ Tags: Behavior modification, Electronic Harassment, Mind control, Patents, Psychotronic Warfare, Remote Neural Monitoring, Targeted Individuals, Technologies, v2k, Voice to skull

Patents of Mind Control and Behavior Modification Technologies Nov13on 13. November 2017 at 19:53Posted In: English, Mind Control / Electronic Weapons Harassment Nervous system excitation device – US Patent 3393279 This invention relates to electromagnetic excitation of the nervous system of a mammal and pertains more parcularly to a method and apparatus for exciting the nervous system of a personContinue reading “Patents of Mind Control and Behavior Modification TechnologiesNov13on 13. November 2017 at 19:53Posted In: English, Mind Control / Electronic Weapons HarassmentNervous system excitation device – US Patent 3393279This invention relates to electromagnetic excitation of the nervous system of a mammal and pertains more parcularly to a method and apparatus for exciting the nervous system of a person with electromagnetic waves that are capable of causing that person to become conscious of information conveyed by the electromagnetic waves.It is an object of the present invention to provide a means of initiating controllable responses of the neuro senses without applying pressure waves or stress waves to the ears or bones. Another object of this invention is to provide a means of causing a person to receive an aural perception of the sound corresponding to the audio modulation of radio frequency electromagnetic waves that are coupled with the nervous system of the person.US Patent 3393279Apparatus for the treatment of neuropsychic and somatic diseases with heat, light, sound and vhf electromagnetic radiation – US Patent 3773049 AAn apparatus for the treatment of neuropsychic and somatic disorders wherein light-, sound-, VHF electromagnetic field-pulses and radiation from light-, sound-, VHF electromcagnetic field- and heat-sources, respectively, are simultaneously applied by means of a control unit to the patient’s central nervous system with a predermined repetition rate. The light radiation and sound radiation sources are made so as to exert an adequate and monotonous influence of the light-and sound-radiation on the patient’s visual analyzers and auditory analyzers, respectively.US Patent 3773049 AApparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves – US Patent 3951134Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject’s brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.US Patent 3951134Device for the induction of specific brain wave patterns – US Patent 4335710 ABrain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject are gradually induced without deleterious chemical or neurological side effects. A white noise generator has the spectral noise density of its output signal modulated in a manner similar to the brain wave patterns by a switching transistor within a spectrum modulator. The modulated white noise signal is amplified by output amplifier and converted to an audio signal by acoustic transducer. Ramp generator gradually increases the voltage received by and resultant output frequency of voltage controlled oscillator whereby switching transistor periodically shunts the high frequency components of the white noise signal to ground.US Patent 4335710 AHearing device – US Patent 4858612A method and apparatus for simulation of hearing in mammals by introduction of a plurality of microwaves into the region of the auditory cortex is shown and described. A microphone is used to transform sound signals into electrical signals which are in turn analyzed and processed to provide controls for generating a plurality of microwave signals at different frequencies. The multifrequency microwaves are then applied to the brain in the region of the auditory cortex. By this method sounds are perceived by the mammal which are representative of the original sound received by the microphone.US Patent 4858612Hearing system – US Patent 4877027 ASound is induced in the head of a person by radiating the head with microwaves in the range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz that are modulated with a particular waveform. The waveform consists of frequency modulated bursts. Each burst is made up of ten to twenty uniformly spaced pulses grouped tightly together. The burst width is between 500 nanoseconds and 100 microseconds. The pulse width is in the range of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond. The bursts are frequency modulated by the audio input to create the sensation of hearing in the person whose head is irradiated.US Patent 4877027 ASilent subliminal presentation system – US Patent 5159703A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude or frequency modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones or piezoelectric transducers. The modulated carriers may be transmitted directly in real time or may be conveniently recorded and stored on mechanical, magnetic or optical media for delayed or repeated transmission to the listener.US Patent 5159703Method of inducing mental, emotional and physical states of consciousness, including specific mental activity, in human beings – US Patent 5213562 AA method having applicability in replication of desired consciousness states; in the training of an individual to replicate such a state of consciousness without further audio stimulation; and in the transferring of such states from one human being to another through the imposition of one individual’s EEG, superimposed on desired stereo signals, on another individual, by inducement of a binaural beat phenomenon.US Patent 5213562 AMethod of and apparatus for inducing desired states of consciousness – US Patent 5356368 AImproved methods and apparatus for entraining human brain patterns, employing frequency following response (FFR) techniques, facilitate attainment of desired states of consciousness. In one embodiment, a plurality of electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms, characteristic of a given state of consciousness, are combined to yield an EEG waveform to which subjects may be susceptible more readily. In another embodiment, sleep patterns are reproduced based on observed brain patterns during portions of a sleep cycle; entrainment principles are applied to induce sleep. In yet another embodiment, entrainment principles are applied in the work environment, to induce and maintain a desired level of consciousness. A portable device also is described.US Patent 5356368 AMethod and an associated apparatus for remotely determining information as to person’s emotional state – US Patent 5507291 AIn a method for remotely determining information relating to a person’s emotional state, an waveform energy having a predetermined frequency and a predetermined intensity is generated and wirelessly transmitted towards a remotely located subject. Waveform energy emitted from the subject is detected and automatically analyzed to derive information relating to the individual’s emotional state. Physiological or physical parameters of blood pressure, pulse rate, pupil size, respiration rate and perspiration level are measured and compared with reference values to provide information utilizable in evaluating interviewee’s responses or possibly criminal intent in security sensitive areas.US Patent 5507291 AUltrasonic speech translator and communications system – US Patent 5539705A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system includes an ultrasonic transmitting device and an ultrasonic receiving device. The ultrasonic transmitting device accepts as input an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output.US Patent 5539705Communication system and method including brain wave analysis and/or use of brain activity – US Patent 6011991 AA system and method for enabling human beings to communicate by way of their monitored brain activity. The brain activity of an individual is monitored and transmitted to a remote location (e.g. by satellite). At the remote location, the monitored brain activity is compared with pre-recorded normalized brain activity curves, waveforms, or patterns to determine if a match or substantial match is found. If such a match is found, then the computer at the remote location determines that the individual was attempting to communicate the word, phrase, or thought corresponding to the matched stored normalized signal.US Patent 6011991 AAcoustic cannon – US 5973999 AAn acoustic cannon has a plurality of acoustic sources with output ends symmetrically arranged in a planar array about a central point. Pressure pulses are generated in each acoustic source at substantially the same time. The pressure pulses exit the output ends as sonic pulses. Interaction of the sonic pulses generates a Mach disk, a non-linear shock wave that travels along an axis perpendicular to the planar array with limited radial diffusion. The Mach disk retains the intensity of the sonic pulses for a time and a distance significantly longer than that achievable from a single sonic source. The acoustic cannon is useful as a non-lethal weapon to disperse crowds or disable a hostile target.US Patent 5973999 ASubliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous systems – US Patent 6017302 AIn human subjects, sensory resonances can be excited by subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses that are tuned to the resonance frequency. The 1/2 Hz sensory resonance affects the autonomic nervous system and may cause relaxation, drowsiness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near 1/2 Hz used. The effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include slowing of certain cortical processes, sleepiness, and disorientation. For these effects to occur, the acoustic intensity must lie in a certain deeply subliminal range. Suitable apparatus consists of a portable battery-powered source of weak subaudio acoustic radiation. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or sexual arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps treatment of insomnia, tremors, epileptic seizures, and anxiety disorders. There is further application as a nonlethal weapon that can be used in law enforcement standoff situations, for causing drowsiness and disorientation in targeted subjects. It is then preferable to use venting acoustic monopoles in the form of a device that inhales and exhales air with subaudio frequency.US Patent 6017302 ANervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitors – US Patent 6506148 B2Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject in response to stimulation of the skin with weak electromagnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near ½ Hz or 2.4 Hz, such as to excite a sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of sufficient amplitudes to cause such excitation. It is therefore possible to manipulate the nervous system of a subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or TV set. For the latter, the image pulsing may be imbedded in the program material, or it may be overlaid by modulating a video stream, either as an RF signal or as a video signal. The image displayed on a computer monitor may be pulsed effectively by a simple computer program. For certain monitors, pulsed electromagnetic fields capable of exciting sensory resonances in nearby subjects may be generated even as the displayed images are pulsed with subliminal intensity.Nervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitors – US Patent 6506148 B2US Patent 6506148 B2Apparatus for audibly communicating speech using the radio frequency hearing effect – US Patent 6587729 B2A modulation process with a fully suppressed carrier and input preprocessor filtering to produce an encoded output; for amplitude modulation (AM) and audio speech preprocessor filtering, intelligible subjective sound is produced when the encoded signal is demodulated using the RF Hearing Effect. Suitable forms of carrier suppressed modulation include single sideband (SSB) and carrier suppressed amplitude modulation (CSAM), with both sidebands present.US Patent 6587729 B2└ Tags: Behavior modification, Electronic Harassment, Mind control, Patents, Psychotronic Warfare, Remote Neural Monitoring, Targeted Individuals, Technologies, v2k, Voice to skull”

DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS SHRIEVER AIRFORCE BASEDirected Energy Weapons (D.E.W.) are microwave scalar-beam weapons that are used to attack Targeted Individuals. The satellite-based system is called a Vircator (Patent #4345220) and it produces an invisible, scalar microwave beam of approx 1/2 inch (1.25 cm) diameter. These satellite weapons and cell tower weapons are controlled from Schriever Air Force Base (www.schriever.af.mil) near Colorado Springs, and can cause excruciating pain when pointed at someone on the ground. The CIA in Denver runs this illegal program, called an Unacknowledged Special Access Program (USAP). Whistleblowers, such as Ed Snowden and Julian Assange are two of the targets. Mark Lenzi, the State Department’s electronic signals expert, has stated that the Cuban diplomats were definitely attacked by microwave weapons.

MILITARY TECHNOLOGY USED ON INNOCENT CITIZENS KNOWN AS TARGETED INDIVIDUALS. ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL INTELLIGENCE COMPLEX PARTNERS LIST UNDER UNIVERSITY ILLINOIS URBANA CHAMPAIGN. UILABS. MXD. CITY TECH. MILITARY AND INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES.

The State of Illinois Economic Profile April, 2017 This study was prepared under contract with the University of Illinois, with financial support from the Office of Economic Adjustment, Department of Defense. The content reflects the views of the University of Illinois and does not necessarily reflect the views of the Office of Economic Adjustment. State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile State Economic Profile The Office of Economic Adjustment (OEA), an arm of the U.S. Department of Defense, initiated the Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program to assist communities in planning for adjustments and resiliency in the face of defense industry changes. As of the beginning of 2016, a project team made up of the University of Illinois Office of Vice President for Research (OVPR), the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Voorhees Center, and the Quad Cities Chamber of Commerce, has begun work on the State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment Project to assess the impact of changes in defense industry spending in Illinois, and to assist impacted sectors in their efforts to develop plans and options to mitigate detrimental impacts. The State of Illinois was ranked number 48 of the 50 states for defense spending as a percentage of total state GDP in 2014 with only 0.8% of the state GDP attributable to it. Based on a recently released report, spending increased from $5.6 billion in 2014 to $7.0 billion in 2015, moving the state in ranking from 48th to 43rd of the 50 states between 2014 and 2015. In terms of absolute defense spending, the state’s position jumped from 23rd to 19th, i.e., from $5.6 Billion to $7 billion between 2014 and 2015. Measured both as a proportion of state GDP and total spending, there is 1 a significant increase in Illinois in 2015 ($7 billion) compared to 2014 ($5.6 billion). Illinois’ increased share is notable given that during the same period, total national defense spending declined from $418 to $408 billion. In Fiscal Year 2015, while $4.8 billion of total defense spending was in the form of defense contracts, $2.2 billion consisted of spending on defense personnel. Defense contracts were largely for manufacturing of Supplies & Equipment (a category with 64% of annual defense contracts). The top direct defense spending locations in the state include: Lake, Cook, St. Clair, DuPage, Rock Island, Winnebago, Peoria, and Madison counties. These eight counties currently account for nearly $6 billion of annual defense spending in the state. As part of the project team, the UIC Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement analyzes data, conducts studies, and engages with stakeholders to inform and assist impacted sectors in their efforts to develop plans and strategies. The first series of these efforts involved compiling community and economic profiles, which were shared with community stakeholders in five regions of the state (Quad Cities, Rockford, Chicago Metro, Metro East, and Peoria) in order to inform the direction of the state DIA Project (these regional economic profiles can be accessed at http://www.illinoisdia.org/). Second, a summary analysis was conducted to establish a relative understanding of the economies of the five sub-state regions in terms of their current composition, changes in employment, and occupations. More recently, these initial efforts were followed by a detailed 1Defense Spending by State reports (for FY 2014 and FY 2015) are available at http://oea.gov/defense- spending-state-fiscal-year-2015?utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery. Note that Fiscal Year 2014 defense spending figures from this same source were used for the Regional Economic Profiles that have been completed for the five Illinois DIA regions. economic composition and change analysis with the purpose of providing a deeper understanding of the regions’ economies in terms of their current industrial composition and to identify drivers of changes in employment. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 2 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Similar to the regional profiles, the primary purpose of this state economic profile is to provide baseline economic and industry information for state-wide and regional defense adjustment and industrial diversification strategies. For example, identification of regionally concentrated industries and those that perform substantial amounts of DoD contracts would aid efforts in identifying industrial clusters and potentially making connections across manufacturers in related industries. Different from regional level analyses, this profile focuses on additional measures of economic growth and competitiveness such as establishment births and deaths, gross state 2 Each economic and industry-level indicator is analyzed in comparison with the national average to provide a better understanding of local conditions and trends. A comparative understanding of a state’s economy in terms of compositional change and performance informs policy makers and analysts to better position the state in the national economy. To the extent that data is available, product, state per capita income, wages by occupation groups, and international trade statistics. the profile analyzes changes over a period of 10 years—long enough to reveal important dynamics, but short enough to focus on the kinds of local changes that may be malleable through state-level policy and planning activities. Drawing on local and national data sources, this profile considers both the fundamental economic conditions and sectoral drivers of the state economy. The economic indicators/industrial data items analyzed are divided into five main groups: Basic economic indicators: Indicators that measure economic conditions and help evaluate economic performance: (1) Employment and its sectoral distribution, (2) Unemployment rate, (3) Unemployment insurance claims, (4) Annual wages, and (5) Occupations. Descriptive analysis of these indicators help determine how the state economy is faring relative to its position in the past, or its current position as measured against the national economy. Defense related industrial activities: The profile identifies specific manufacturing and professional/technical services industries in which businesses may be performing defense contract work or are part of the defense industry supply chain. By analyzing employment trends in these industries in comparison with the nation, the profile explores the “defense activity-industrial performance” nexus. Finally, the state’s share of national defense contracts is analyzed, and local industries that perform substantial work originating from the Department of Defense are identified. Industrial Specialization: This analysis identifies industry sectors in which the state economy is specialized relative to the national economy. For this purpose, we calculate employment-based location quotients (LQs). In addition to indicating how specialized a local economy is relative to the larger economy, location quotients are essential in determining the economic base of a local economy. In the analysis of LQs, particular attention is given to specific manufacturing and professional/technical services industries in which businesses may be performing defense contract 2 These extra measures were not included in regional economic profiles because either data was not available at sub-state level (e.g., international trade) or that most regions are too small for their fluctuations to be meaningful. work or are part of the defense industry supply chain. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 3 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Drivers of State Employment Change: We analyze all industry sectors at the 2- and 3-digit NAICS level for employment change from 2005 to 2015. A shift-share analysis is conducted to better understand how the local area economy is changing, and in which industries it is most competitive. By disaggregating the portions of change that result from local factors versus broader changes in the national economy or in the particular industry, the shift-share analysis sheds light on the sources of growth and decline in the state economy. Export Performance of State Industries: Foreign trade statistics provide an trade situation – and market development and penetration studies. They also constitute a measure of the impact of competition faced by state exporting firms/industries. Analysis of foreign trade data might also inform the state transportation and logistics industry in the critical area of appraisal of the general anticipating the need for – future facilities and equipment. Notes on definitions and data sources may be found at the end of this document. If there are any questions, please contact Yittayih Zelalem, Co-director of the Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood & Community Improvement at the University of Illinois at Chicago at 312-996-6674 or e-mail at: yittazel@uic.edu. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 4 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile State Economic Highlights  The state population grew approximately 2.0% from 2005 to 2015, a much slower rate than the nation as a whole, which grew nearly 9% during the same period. Relatively slow population growth rate in the state is reflected in employment and economic output trends.  The state economy is not performing as well as the national economy. Current state employment is still below the pre-recession level. Although the state economy continues to expand after the recession ended in 2010, unlike the trend in the country, current state employment has not reached the pre-recession level yet. Shift-share analysis shows that if the state economy’s growth rate were identical to that of the national economy, then the number of jobs in the state should have grown by 346,028 between 2005 and 2015; instead, the state gained only 100,096 jobs during the same period.  Health care, retail trade, and manufacturing accounted for the largest shares of any sector in 2015, representing 13.3 percent, 10.5 percent, and 10.0 percent of employment in the state, respectively. The sectors that created the most jobs from 2005 to 2015 were health care, accommodation and food services, and professional and technical services. These sectors respectively added 119,040; 60,858; and 56,870 jobs to the state economy. Manufacturing and construction experienced the largest job losses during the same period. From 2005 to 2015, manufacturing lost more than 110,000 jobs while the construction sector lost nearly 55,000 jobs. The manufacturing sector is declining faster in Illinois than nationally.  In 2015, Illinois had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $50,295. This PCPI ranked 15th in the United States and was 105 percent of the national average ($48,112). The 2015 PCPI reflected an increase of 10 percent from 2005 (nearly the same as the change at the national level). In 2005, the PCPI of Illinois was $45,689 and ranked 16th in the United States.  The state Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew 6.8 percent from 2005 to 2015 in real terms, lagging the national growth metric of 13.3 percent. The largest sectoral contributor to real GDP growth in Illinois was finance, insurance, and real estate. This sector accounted for approximately 3 percentage points of the total growth in real GDP. The second largest contributor was professional and business services, which accounted for 2 percentage points of the total growth in real GDP.  The current (2015) unemployment rate in the state (5.9%) is slightly higher than the national unemployment rate (5.3%). After rising sharply during the recession years of 2009 and 2010, the unemployment rate has fallen in recent years.  The current average wage for all industries in the state is $55,889 (2015). This figure is above the national figure. (According to Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 estimates, the average annual wage across all industries was $52,942 in the U.S.). There has not been a significant change in the gap between state and national wages during the last ten years.  The state is specialized in various manufacturing, financial, and business service industries. Among those, machinery manufacturing (NAICS 333), fabricated metal product manufacturing University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 5 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile (NAICS 332) and professional and technical services (NAICS 541) are closely related to defense. State employment in fabricated metal product manufacturing declined substantially during the recession and has not completely recovered yet. While national employment increased in the last five years, local employment remained the same. State employment in professional and technical services closely follows the national trend and surpassed the pre-recession levels.  More than $60 billion worth of goods were exported from Illinois in 2015. These exports supported 333,674 jobs (nearly 6% of total state employment) and helped sustain a total of 23,252 companies. Eighty-six percent (86%) of these jobs are attributable to manufactured goods exports. Major export categories are machinery, chemicals, transportation equipment, electronic products, and electrical equipment.  Illinois’s share of U.S. exports is shrinking in recent years (Table 10). This is explained in part by the state’s contracting manufacturing sector and the fact that Illinois’s share of the U.S. population has been declining during the same period.  In 2015, $5.3 billion worth of DoD contracts were performed in Illinois. Businesses operating in manufacturing, wholesale trade, construction, and professional and technical services received the most contract dollars obligated in FY 2015; the top industries include: Medical equipment merchant wholesalers ($472 million); Construction ($387 million); Search, detection, and navigation instruments ($384 million); Heavy duty truck manufacturing ($379); Engineering services ($229 million); Aircraft manufacturing ($223 million).  Department of Defense (DoD) contracts in the state of Illinois are concentrated in two regions: Northeast Illinois and Southwest Illinois. In 2015, nearly 80 percent of Illinois DoD contracts (or 4.3 out of 5.3 billion dollars’ worth of DoD contracts) were performed in these two regions. As a share of regional gross regional product (GRP), – DoD contracts are most important to the Southwest Illinois Region, where they constituted around 4 percent of GRP in 2015. In the same year, defense contracts accounted for less than 1 percent of GRP in the Northeast Illinois Region.  Defense contracts in the Rockford and Greater Peoria regions are concentrated in a few industries. While contracts in the Rockford region are concentrated in electrical apparatus- equipment wholesale (55%) and aircraft manufacturing (20%), in the Greater Peoria region, they are heavily concentrated in machinery manufacturing (73%). Heavy concentration in a few industries may make these regions more vulnerable to reductions in defense spending as a result of either cuts in defense programs related to these industries or the regions losing their competitive advantage in those industries over time. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 6 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Population Illinois currently has an estimated 12,859,995 residents, making it the fifth largest state in the U.S. The state population grew approximately 2.0% from 2005 to 2015, a much slower rate than the nation as a whole, which grew nearly 9% during the same period (Table 1 and Figure 1). As discussed in the following pages, the relatively slow population growth rate in the state is reflected in employment and gross domestic product trends. Table 1: Population, 2005-2015 Year 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 Change (2005-2015) Illinois 12,610,000 12,696000 12,797,000 12,862,000 12,890,000 12,860,000 2.0% United States 295,517,000 301,231,000 306,772,000 311,719,000 316,427,000 321,419,000 8.8% 2006 12,644,000 298,380,000 2008 12,747,000 304,094,000 2010 12,841,000 309,347,000 2012 12,875,000 314,103,000 2014 12,882,000 318,907,000 14,000,000 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 350,000,000 300,000,000 250,000,000 200,000,000 150,000,000 100,000,000 50,000,000 Figure 1: Population, 2005-2015 — 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 7 Illinois U.S. State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Employment and Gross Domestic Product by Sectors Health care and social assistance is the largest industry by employment in Illinois. The health care sector employed more than 778,000 workers in 2015, approximately 13.3 percent of total employment in the state (Figure 2). After health care, retail trade and manufacturing are the two largest sectors. These three sectors together constituted more than one third of total state employment in 2015. These sectors are also dominant sectors at the national level. However, manufacturing accounts for a slightly larger share of employment in Illinois than in the U.S. (Table 2). The share of manufacturing in state employment is 10.0% while it is 8.8% of national employment. Similar to the pattern observed for the national economy, industries display different growth rates (Figure 3). Sectors that created the most jobs in the state from 2005 to 2015 were health care, accommodation and food services, and professional and technical services. These sectors respectively added 119,040; 60,858; and 56,870 jobs to the state economy. Manufacturing and construction experienced the largest job losses during the same period. From 2005 to 2015, manufacturing lost more than 110,000 jobs while the construction sector lost nearly 55,000 jobs in Illinois. Overall, state industries with relatively large employment shrank at a faster rate than the industries in the national economy or they did not grow as fast as the national industrial average. Educational services, 9.1% Manufacturing, 10.0% Retail trade, 10.5% Health care and social assistance, 13.3% Mining, 0.2% Agriculture, 0.3% Utilities, 0.4% Professional and technical services, 6.9% Wholesale trade, 5.2% Finance and insurance, 4.9% Transportation and warehousing, 4.8% Public administration, 4.4% Construction, 3.7% Other services, 3.5% Information, 1.9% Management of companies, 1.6% Arts, entertainment, and recreation, 1.4% Figure 2: Sectoral Distribution of Employment, 2015 Accommodation and food services, 8.4% Administrative and waste services, 7.3% Real estate, 1.3% University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 8 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Table 2: Top Industries by Employment, 2015 Industry Health care and social assistance Manufacturing Illinois Rank Employment Share 1 778,941 13.3% 3 582,196 10.0% 492,878 8.4% 403,699 6.9% 287,488 4.9% 260,142 4.4% 13 202,022 3.5% 15 94,566 1.6% 17 77,544 1.3% 19 17,830 0.3% 21 8,133 0.1% 5,811,911 99.4% 5,848,451 100.0% United States Rank Employment Share 1 20,282,539 14.5% 4 12,339,633 8.8% 3 13,030,233 9.3% Retail trade 2 615,216 10.5% 2 15,704,487 11.3% Educational services 4 534,856 9.1% 5 12,313,741 8.8% Accommodation and food services 5 Professional and technical services 7 Finance and insurance 9 Public administration 11 7 11 8 13 16 17 18 21 8,725,796 6.3% 5,770,137 4.1% 7,242,529 5.2% 4,348,055 3.1% 2,197,652 1.6% 2,136,255 1.5% 1,255,846 0.9% 240,460 0.2% 139,486,998 100.0% 139,491,699 100.0% Administrative and waste services 6 426,882 7.3% 6 8,874,589 6.4% Wholesale trade 8 301,313 5.2% 10 5,874,599 4.2% Transportation and warehousing 10 283,508 4.8% 12 5,542,106 4.0% Construction 12 215,002 3.7% 9 6,603,670 4.7% Other services, except public administration Management of companies and enterprises Real estate and rental and leasing Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting Unclassified Total with data suppression Total without data suppression Information 14 111,601 1.9% 14 2,897,488 2.1% Arts, entertainment, and recreation 16 84,672 1.4% 15 2,546,157 1.8% Utilities 18 24,134 0.4% 19 808,885 0.6% Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 20 9,288 0.2% 20 752,141 0.5% *Industries for which employment data is suppressed. Shares are calculated using total without data suppression. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 9 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% -10.0% -20.0% -30.0% State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Figure 3: Industry Employment Growth Rates, 2005-2015 University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber Illinois U.S. In terms of contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP), the largest industry in Illinois was finance, insurance, and real estate in 2015. This industry accounted for nearly 23 percent of Illinois GDP in 2015. The second largest industry was professional and business services, which accounted for 14 percent of Illinois GDP. The third largest industry was manufacturing, which accounted for 13 percent of Illinois GDP. This pattern is slightly different from the national economy in that the shares of these three industries in the U.S. GDP are smaller than in the state. This suggests that trends in these sectors largely determine the health and growth of the state economy. The real state GDP grew 6.8 percent from 2005 to 2015, lagging the national growth rate of 13.3 percent. The largest contributor to real GDP growth in Illinois was finance, insurance, real estate. This industry accounted for approximately 3 percentage points of the total growth in real GDP. The second largest contributor was professional and business services, which accounted for 2 percentage points of the total growth in real GDP. In 2015, Illinois had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $50,295. This PCPI ranked 15th in the United States and was 105 percent of the national average ($48,112). The 2015 PCPI reflected an increase of 10 percent from 2005 (nearly the same as the change at the national level). In 2005, the PCPI of Illinois was $45,689 and ranked 16th in the United States. 10 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Table 3: Top Industries by Gross Domestic Product, 2015 (2009 million dollars) Industry Finance, insurance, and real estate Manufacturing Educational services and health care Retail trade Illinois Rank Employment 1 156,638 3 88,284 5 57,605 7 36,584 9 25,090 Share Rank 22.7 1 12.8 4 8.4 5 5.3 7 3.6 8 3.5 9 United States Employment Share 3,189,329 19.82 1,912,044 11.9 1,354,416 8.4 969,407 6.0 854,581 5.3 623,855 3.9 Professional and business services 2 97,517 14.1 3 2,039,290 12.7 Government and other services 4 82,183 11.9 2 2,289,596 14.2 Wholesale trade 6 53,394 7.7 6 983,610 6.1 Arts and entertainment 8 25,637 3.7 10 623,427 3.9 Information Construction Agriculture Total 690,187 Transportation and warehousing 10 24,047 3.5 11 445,820 2.8 11 23,978 13 4,700 0.7 14 146,405 0.9 100.0 16,088,249 100.0 Utilities 12 11,840 1.7 13 264,359 1.6 Mining and oil extraction 14 2,690 0.4 12 392,110 2.4 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 18,000,000 16,000,000 14,000,000 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 Figure 4: Gross Domestic Product, 2005-2015 — 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 11 Illinois, in million dollars (2009) U.S., in million dollars (2009) State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 – Figure 5: Per capita Personal Income, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 12 2015 Constant dollars Year 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 Change (2005-2015) Illinois 5,748,355 5,869,157 5,551,930 5,566,648 5,687,541 5,848,451 1.7% United States 131,571,623 135,366,106 128,607,842 129,411,095 133,968,434 139,491,699 6.0% State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Trends in Employment, Unemployment, and Initial Unemployment Insurance Claims For both the state and the country, 2010 marks the lowest level of employment in the last ten years. Unlike nationwide, state employment has not yet reached its pre-recession level, though the state economy continues to expand. (Table 4). Differences in employment growth can also be seen in Figure 6 where employment levels for Illinois and the U.S. are shown as shares of 2005 employment. Table 4: Employment, 2005-2015 2006 5,821,022 133,833,834 2008 5,841,692 134,805,659 2010 5,502,322 127,820,442 2012 5,636,918 131,696,378 2014 5,762,156 136,613,609 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 Figure 6: Indexed Employment, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 13 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Current unemployment rate in the state (5.9%) is slightly higher than the national unemployment rate (5.3%). After rising sharply during the recession years of 2009 and 2010, the unemployment rate has fallen in recent years. However, it is still higher than pre-recession levels (Table 5 and Figure 7). Table 5: Unemployment Rate (%), 2005-2015 2005 2006 Illinois 5.7 4.5 U.S. 5.1 4.6 2007 2008 2009 5.0 6.3 10.2 4.6 5.8 9.3 2010 2011 10.4 9.7 9.6 8.9 2012 2013 2014 2015 9.0 9.1 7.1 5.9 8.1 7.4 6.2 5.3 12.0% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% Figure 7: Annual Unemployment Rate, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Illinois 2011 2012 2013 U.S. 2014 2015 After peaking during the recession (2009), recent unemployment insurance claims in the state have 3 returned to below their pre-recession levels. Overall, the trend for the state is very similar to trends observed for the U.S. Similar to the national trends, the state experienced a higher number of claims during the recession years of 2008, 2009, and 2010, but the most recent claims are below pre-recession levels. In Figure 8, initial unemployment claims for Illinois and the U.S. are shown as a share of 2006 initial unemployment claims. Current initial claims in the state have returned to their pre-recession levels in 2014 and below the pre-recession level in 2015. 3 are a leading indicator of economic conditions and are used in the New claims anticipate subsequent movement in the economy, Initial unemployment insurance claims analysis of current unemployment trends. primarily measuring University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber emerging unemployment. 14 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 Figure 8: Average Weekly Unemployment Insurance Claims, 2005- 2015 — 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. 2.00 1.80 1.60 1.40 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 Figure 9: Indexed Unemployment Insurance Claims, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 15 Illinois United States State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Trends in Private Sector Employment and Establishments Although the overall level of volatility in the labor market in Illinois appears to be largely the same as in the U.S., private sector establishments created more new net jobs at the national level than in the state in the last decade (relative to baseline). While the births of new establishments were offset by the deaths of existing establishments in the state, private sector establishments continue 4 to increase in net numbers in the country (Figures 10, 11, 12, 13). 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 – Figure 10: Private sector job gains and losses, Illinois, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Gains 2011 2012 Losses 2013 2014 2015 2016 4 Quarterly statistics in private sector establishment and employment helps assess the business cycle, the level of labor market volatility, and the effect of establishment employment changes on aggregate employment. These data are also useful in highlighting the forces behind the net changes in employment. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 16 March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile 10,000,000 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 Figure 11: Private sector job gains and losses, U.S., 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Gains 2010 2011 2012 Losses 2013 2014 2015 2016 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 Figure 12: Private sector establishment births and deaths, Illinois, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Births 2011 2012 Deaths 2013 2014 2015 2016 University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 17 March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 – Figure 13: Private sector establishment births and deaths, U.S., 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Births 2010 2011 2012 Deaths 2013 2014 2015 2016 University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 18 March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March September March State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Annual Wages The current average wage for all industries in the state is $55,889 (2015). This figure is above the national figure (according to BLS 2015 estimates, average annual wage for all industries was 5 $52,942 in the U.S.). Figure 15 examines average annual wages for just the manufacturing sector. Different trends are observed in terms of changes in wages for the economy as a whole and the manufacturing sector. While the average annual wages for all industries have been stable both at the state and national levels, the annual wages for the manufacturing sector have risen notably. Another observation is that while the state wage average for the manufacturing sector has been closer to the national average (relative to the wages for the economy as a whole), wages in the manufacturing sector in Illinois are increasing slightly higher than the U.S. Figure 14 depicts average annual wages for the economy as a whole while 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 – Figure 14: Annual Average Wages, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Illinois 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 U.S. 5 Annual wages are a key to understanding what the standard of living is in the local economy. Earnings from employment in the form of wages remain the primary source of income for individuals to support themselves and their families. Industry-level annual wages are also considered as an indicator of a state’s competitiveness. All monetary figures are in 2015 dollars. Previous year wages are adjusted for inflation using Consumer Price Index (CPI) deflators published by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 19 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 – Figure 15: Annual Average Wages in Manufacturing Sector, 2005- 2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Illinois 2011 2012 U.S. 2013 2014 2015 The following three graphs examine average wages for three sectors that drive the state economy: health care; accommodation and food services; and professional and technical services. While average wages in the first two sectors are very close to national averages, the state wage average for professional and technical services is higher than the national average. It is worth noting, however, that the difference between state and national wage averages for professional services appears to be getting smaller over time. 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 – Figure 16: Annual Average Wages in Health Care Sector, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Illinois 2011 2012 U.S. 2013 2014 2015 University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 20 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 – Figure 17: Annual Average Wages in Accommodation and Food Service Sector, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Illinois 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 U.S. 100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 – Figure 18: Annual Average Wages in Professional and Technical Services Sector, 2005-2015 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Illinois 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 U.S. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 21 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Local Industrial Concentration  Ten out of thirty-two locally concentrated industry sectors are manufacturing sectors (a reflection of the fact that manufacturing accounts for 10% of local employment) (Table 6). The following three industries and businesses operating in these industries are either performing defense related contract work or are part of the defense industry supply chain: machinery manufacturing (NAICS 333); fabricated metal products manufacturing (NAICS 332); professional and technical services (NAICS 541). Among these locally concentrated industries, the professional and technical services industry is a major source of employment in the state, accounting for approximately 7% of total statewide employment in 2015.  Many of the industries (except those indicated with symbol † below) are locally concentrated based on both employment and establishment counts. For these industries, local employment per establishment is close the equivalent national ratio. For instance, the employment-to- establishment ratio for fabricated metal products manufacturing (NAICS 332) is 27 in the state while it is 25 at the national level. The average size of establishments may have implications for the strength of the state’s relationship with defense industry and prospects of growth. Industries that are heavily concentrated within large firms may wield greater political or supply chain power. Yet this may also mean the local strength and health of the industry is dependent on the fortunes of just a few firms, often businesses that are not owned or led locally. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 22 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Table 6: Concentrated Industry Sectors: Employment-Based LQs6 NAICS Code 333 323 326 813 519 523 425 322 482 488 484 331 561 522 446 541 Industry State U.S. LQ 481 Air transportation 34,771 457,788 1.81 Machinery manufacturing Printing and related support activities Plastics and rubber products manufacturing Membership associations and organizations Other information services Securities, commodity contracts, investments Electronic markets and agents and brokers Paper manufacturing Rail transportation Support activities for transportation Truck transportation Primary metal manufacturing Administrative and support services Credit intermediation and related activities† Health and personal care stores† 75,997 1,115,478 1.62 27,007 451,227 1.43 40,779 686,517 1.42 79,713 1,365,167 1.39 21,538 378,206 1.36 51,018 903,933 1.35 47,633 911,685 1.25 19,304 371,234 1.24 38 745 1.22 36,031 724,182 1.19 71,655 1,444,317 1.18 19,361 392,441 1.18 411,742 8,445,060 1.16 121,562 2,573,457 1.13 47,943 1,031,294 1.11 403,699 8,725,796 1.10 5,811,911 139,486,998 N.A. 5,848,451 139,491,699 N.A. 332 Fabricated metal product manufacturing 94,833 1,456,264 1.55 335 Electrical equipment and appliance mfg. 22,817 381,635 1.43 493 Warehousing and storage† 49,129 831,905 1.41 325 Chemical manufacturing 46,345 806,111 1.37 485 Transit and ground passenger transportation 41,060 724,453 1.35 424 Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods 108,290 2,030,897 1.27 311 Food manufacturing 78,809 1,509,267 1.25 324 Petroleum and coal products manufacturing 5,628 109,715 1.22 524 Insurance carriers and related activities 113,032 2,266,509 1.19 713 Amusements, gambling, and recreation 91,445 1,838,671 1.19 423 Merchant wholesalers, durable goods 145,390 2,932,016 1.18 339 Miscellaneous manufacturing 28,832 587,713 1.17 921 Executive, legislative and general government 145,549 2,998,048 1.16 491 Postal service† 28,310 602,924 1.12 443 Electronics and appliance stores† 23,925 515,063 1.11 Professional and technical services Total Employment with Data Suppression Total Employment without Data Suppression 6 Note that locally concentrated industries are identified in this analysis by LQs exceeding 1.10. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 23 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Given their size in the state economy and potential supply-chain linkages to the defense industry, the following figures examine state employment levels in these industries in comparison with national trends. State employment in machinery manufacturing declined substantially during the recession years and has not fully recovered (Figure 19). Similarly, state employment in fabricated metal product manufacturing declined considerably during the recession and has not completely recovered. While national employment increased in the last five years, state employment remained the same (Figure 20). State employment in professional and technical services closely follows the national trend and surpassed the pre-recession levels (Figure 21). Figure 19: Employment in Machinery Manufacturing, 2005-2015 100,000 1,400,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 — 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 Figure 20: Employment in Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing, 2005-2015 — 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 24 Illinois Employment Illinois Employment U.S. Employment U.S. Employment State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile 450,000 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 10,000,000 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 Figure 21: Employment in Professional and Technical Services, 2005-2015 — 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 25 Illinois Employment U.S. Employment State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Components of State Employment Growth    The state economy is not performing as well as the national economy. The national growth component (national shift in the box below) shows that, if the state’s economic growth rate were identical to that of the national economy, then the number of jobs in the state should have grown by 346,028 between 2005 and 2015. However, the state gained 100,096 jobs from 2005 to 2015. The industry mix component of 1,663 means that the state has 1,663 more jobs than it would have if its structure were identical to the nation. This figure is minimal compared to the other components, implying that the state industrial composition does not generate differences in growth from the nation. According to the local share component, a shift of -247,594 jobs in the state is attributable to its relative competitive position. That is, a loss of nearly two hundred forty-seven thousand jobs is attributable to characteristics specific to the local economy. National Shift (RS) = 346,028 Industry Mix (IM) = 1,663 Local (Competitive) Shift (LS) = -247,594  Figure 22 below graphically summarizes the results for individual industries. In this graph, the location quotient (the employment concentration relative to the nation) appears on the vertical axis and the local component of the change in employment from 2005 to 2015 appears on the horizontal axis. The size of the circles represents current employment levels. Industries that appear in the upper right quadrant (high LQ-high competitive shift) represent solid strengths. For example, educational services and information are both locally concentrated and local factors, specific to the state of Illinois, contributed to the growth of the industry.  Industries that appear in the upper left quadrant (high LQ-low competitive shift) represent current industrial strengths that are struggling. Manufacturing and construction are located in this quadrant. Negative competitive shifts mean that these industries are not a negative competitive shift for this industry indicates that it is declining faster locally than nationally.  Industries that appear in the lower right quadrant (low LQ-high competitive shift) represent potential emerging local industrial strengths. Although they are growing faster than national industry trends suggest, these industries are relatively small and are not expected to continue growing in the future. growing locally faster than the national industrial average. Positive competitive shifts suggest that growing at the same rate as the national industrial average. In fact, because employment in manufacturing is declining at the national level, University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 26 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile  The lower left quadrant (low LQ-low competitive shift) is the least interesting of the four quadrants. Industries that appear in this quadrant are not locally concentrated and the local economy does not exhibit a competitive advantage to support employment growth in these sectors.  In order to see the quadrant locations for industries at a fine-grained level, Figure 23 replicates the information from Figure 22 with 3-digit NAICS industries but excluding outliers (industries with LQ > 2 or competitive shift > 50%) and without displaying industry size. According to Figure 20, the greatest number of industries are located in the upper and lower left quadrants. However, a considerable number of industries are located in the upper right quadrant of the graph. Industries such as electronic markets and agents and brokers (NAICS 425), air transportation (NAICS 481), and support activities for transportation (NAICS 488) represent solid strengths while apparel manufacturing (NAICS 315) and transportation equipment manufacturing (NAICS 336) show emerging local industrial strengths. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 27 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Figure 22: Regional Concentration and Regional Effects Construction struction Manufacturing -30% -20% -10% 1.60 LQ Con 1.40 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 CS -50% -40% 0% 10% 20% Utilities University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 28 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Figure 23: Regional Concentration and Regional Effects -50% -40% -30% 454 312 512 -20% 926-10% 442 511 444574282 611623 551 446 812 712811 1 532 CS 40% 50% 923 922 721 483 315 924 928 316 449425 441 453 624 238 711 531 327 452 518 999 486 0.5 113 525 0 211 -0.5 -1 331 921 339 561 517 522 491 443 2 LQ Co 333 332 1.5 485 335 323 813 nstruction 481 523 493 326 325 424 423 541 713 322 484 488 311 324 10% 20% 30% 524 451 562 621 482 515 447 533 622 212 233634492 337 221 0% 487 111 321 237314 336 115 114 213 521 313 112 425 University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 29 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Occupations There are four major growth occupation groups: Business and financial operations occupations; Architecture and engineering occupations; Sales occupations; and Construction and extraction occupations (Table 7). Occupation groups with increased occupational employment LQ values over time indicate that industries that demand these occupations are probably growing and might demand equivalent or similar occupations in the future (Table 8). Understanding the current and changing occupation mix of a state informs policy makers and analysts about occupational requirements of local industries. Specifically, they could inform educational and workforce training policies and programs for growing and/or specialized industries. For example, employment growth in professional and technical services (NAICS 541) discussed above is probably related to growth in architecture and engineering occupations. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 30 Table 7: Changes in Major Occupation Groups in Illinois, 2010-2015 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Illinois 2015 Change 388,500 29.5% 169,580 33.3% 32,760 -3.5% 46,920 7.0% 68,810 -1.7% 159,210 3.1% 482,170 9.2% 168,830 31.6% 919,450 4.4% 178,580 -13.3% 437,840 5.8% 473,270 9.2% U.S. Occ. Code 13-0000 17-0000 21-0000 25-0000 29-0000 33-0000 37-0000 41-0000 45-0000 49-0000 53-0000 00-0000 Occupation Title Business and Financial Operations Occupations Architecture and Engineering Occupations Community and Social Service Occupations Education, Training, and Library Occupations Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations Protective Service Occupations Building and Grounds Cleaning and Main. Occ. Sales and Related Occupations Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations Transportation and Material Moving Occupations All Occupations 2010 299,890 127,260 33,940 43,850 69,980 154,460 441,480 128,310 880,460 205,920 413,970 433,260 2010 6,022,860 3,283,950 1,064,510 992,650 1,716,640 3,962,930 11,027,340 3,425,220 21,503,800 5,072,530 8,236,340 8,547,980 2015 6,936,990 4,005,250 1,146,110 1,062,370 1,843,600 3,989,910 12,577,080 4,307,500 21,846,420 5,477,820 9,073,290 9,536,610 Change 15.2% 22.0% 7.7% 7.0% 7.4% 0.7% 14.1% 25.8% 1.6% 8.0% 10.2% 11.6% 11-0000 Management Occupations 5,528,420 5,852,710 5.9% 127,097,160 137,896,660 8.5% 15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations 313,360 316,070 0.9% 6,090,910 7,032,560 15.5% 19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations 83,630 87,700 4.9% 2,305,530 2,475,390 7.4% 23-0000 Legal Occupations 74,910 74,620 -0.4% 1,901,180 1,972,140 3.7% 27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertain., Sports, and Media Occ. 405,940 385,700 -5.0% 8,457,870 8,542,670 1.0% 31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations 320,770 332,380 3.6% 7,346,580 8,021,800 9.2% 35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations 140,030 150,250 7.3% 3,187,810 3,351,620 5.1% 39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations 184,030 178,810 -2.8% 4,175,550 4,407,050 5.5% 43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations 583,370 593,750 1.8% 13,437,980 14,462,120 7.6% 47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations 5,170 7,580 46.6% 408,040 454,230 11.3% 51-0000 Production Occupations 184,440 199,930 8.4% 4,928,960 5,374,150 9.0% University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 31 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Table 8: Occupational Employment Location Quotients, Illinois, 2015* Occ. Code Occupation Title 2010 2015 1.15 1.32 0.89 1.00 0.73 0.67 1.02 1.04 0.94 0.88 0.90 0.94 0.92 0.90 0.86 0.92 0.94 0.99 0.93 0.77 1.16 1.14 1.17 1.17 11-0000 Management Occupations 1.00 1.00 13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations 17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations 21-0000 Community and Social Service Occupations 25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations 29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations 33-0000 Protective Service Occupations 37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occ. 41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations 45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations 49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations 53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations 00-0000 All Occupations *Reference region in LQ calculations is U.S. 15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations 1.18 1.06 19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations 0.83 0.83 23-0000 Legal Occupations 0.91 0.89 27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occ. 1.10 1.06 31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations 1.00 0.98 35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations 1.01 1.06 39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations 1.01 0.96 43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations 1.00 0.97 47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations 0.29 0.39 51-0000 Production Occupations 0.86 0.88 Looking at median annual wages for the state and the country, there do not seem to be large differences for different occupation groups. Regarding change over time, median wages declined at a greater rate in the state than in the U.S. (-2.1% versus -1.6%). While wages for workers with three occupations grew locally faster than the national average (computer occupations; protective service occupations; and construction occupations), for three other occupation groups, wages declined substantially compared to the national trend for that occupation (life and physical science occupations; legal occupations, and farming occupations). University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 32 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Table 9: Annual Median Wages for Major Occupational Groups (in 2015 constant dollars), 2010-2015 Occ. Code 13-0000 17-0000 21-0000 25-0000 29-0000 33-0000 37-0000 41-0000 45-0000 49-0000 53-0000 00-0000 Occupation Title Business and Financial Operations Occupations Architecture and Engineering Occupations Community and Social Service Occupations Education, Training, and Library Occupations Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations Protective Service Occupations Building and Grounds Cleaning and Main. Occ. Sales and Related Occupations Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations Transportation and Material Moving Occupations All Occupations Illinois 2010 2015 Change 2010 64,989 64,800 -0.3% 65,946 74,239 74,700 0.6% 76,750 43,272 42,100 -2.7% 42,696 53,098 48,950 -7.8% 49,663 63,870 61,680 -3.4% 63,576 41,565 42,060 1.2% 39,848 25,185 25,580 1.6% 24,446 26,641 26,120 -2.0% 26,489 29,761 27,270 -8.4% 21,337 46,543 46,130 -0.9% 43,609 30,870 30,360 -1.7% 30,870 38,130 37,320 -2.1% 36,783 U.S. 2015 Change 65,710 -0.4% 76,870 0.2% 42,010 -1.6% 47,220 -4.9% 62,610 -1.5% 37,730 -5.3% 23,860 -2.4% 25,660 -3.1% 21,760 2.0% 42,790 -1.9% 30,090 -2.5% 36,200 -1.6% 11-0000 Management Occupations 94,837 93,910 -1.0% 99,391 98,560 -0.8% 15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations 78,250 80,170 2.5% 80,130 81,430 1.6% 19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations 71,163 64,850 -8.9% 63,620 62,160 -2.3% 23-0000 Legal Occupations 95,152 76,620 -19.5% 81,065 78,170 -3.6% 27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertain., Sports, and Media Occ. 45,500 45,780 0.6% 46,598 46,160 -0.9% 31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations 26,413 26,670 1.0% 26,913 27,040 0.5% 35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations 20,543 19,430 -5.4% 20,402 19,580 -4.0% 39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations 22,446 22,410 -0.2% 22,435 21,850 -2.6% 43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations 34,120 33,680 -1.3% 33,380 33,200 -0.5% 47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations 59,326 61,160 3.1% 42,478 42,280 -0.5% 51-0000 Production Occupations 33,391 32,500 -2.7% 32,967 32,250 -2.2% University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 33 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile International Trade Exports sustain thousands of businesses and support hundreds of thousands of jobs in Illinois. According to the International Trade Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce, in 2015, a total of 23,252 companies exported from Illinois locations, and exports from those companies supported 333,674 jobs (nearly 6% of total employment). Eighty-six percent (86%) of these jobs are attributable to manufactured goods exports. Major export categories are machinery, chemicals, transportation equipment, electronic products, and electrical equipment. Illinois’s top five (5) export markets were Canada ($17.5 billion), Mexico ($9.1 billion), China ($4.9 billion), Germany ($3.1 billion), and Australia ($2.6 billion) in 2015. Similar to the trend observed for the nation as a whole, after rising sharply following the end of the recession in 2010, exports have declined in recent years (Figure 24). Illinois’s share of U.S. exports is shrinking in recent years (Table 10). This is explained in part by the state’s contracting manufacturing sector, and the decline in the state’s share of share of the U.S. population. 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 Figure 24: Exports Originated from Illinois, 2007-2016 (2016 constant million dollars) — 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Illinois U.S. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 34 Illinois United States State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, State Economic Profile Table 10: Top Products Exported from Illinois and Illinois’s Shares of U.S. Exports, 2013-2016 (2016 constant dollars) NAICS Code 120190 870324 901890 851712 230330 870410 853710 840999 870323 848180 210690 850440 Product Description Soybeans Passenger vehicles Industrial appliance for medical surgical dental and veterinary products Phones for cellular ntwks. / for other wireless eq. Brewing or distilling dregs and waste Dumpers designed for off-highway use Controls, elect apparatus f elect cont. Spark-ignition reciprocating int. com Passenger vehicle spk-ig int. com rcpr. p eng. >1500 Taps cocks etc. f pipe vat inc. thermos. control Food preparations Static converters; adp. power supplies Sub-total (Top 25) Export ($ million) 2013 2014 2015 2016 2,214 1,818 1,545 2,375 1,368 1,611 1,595 1,090 870 914 1,021 1,065 318 656 847 886 1,119 811 709 643 2,585 1,810 1,084 602 575 586 510 560 620 657 561 531 1,008 933 877 498 370 475 464 417 321 317 350 387 459 425 433 375 22,176 23,630 21,563 20,171 Share 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.3 2.7 2.4 4.0 2.1 2.4 2.5 1.8 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.8 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.2 1.1 1.1 3.9 2.6 1.7 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.5 1.4 1.4 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 33.5 34.5 34.0 33.7 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.1 % Change, 2013-2016 7.3 (20.4) 22.5 179.0 (42.5) (76.7) (2.7) (14.3) (50.6) 12.7 20.7 (18.4) (9.0) (9.7) 271012 Lt oils, preps gt 70% petroleum 3,931 5,059 2,648 2,838 5.9 7.4 4.2 4.7 (27.8) 300490 Medicaments, measured doses, retail pk. 378 550 1,031 1,217 0.6 0.8 1.6 2.0 221.8 880000 Civilian aircraft, engines, and parts 904 948 1,010 1,067 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.8 18.1 851762 Machinery for recp./convr./trans/regn. of voice/image 527 736 801 998 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.7 89.3 870899 Parts and accessories of motor vehicles 892 940 832 745 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 (16.4) 300210 Antisera, blood fractions & immunological products 526 555 1,050 615 0.8 0.8 1.7 1.0 16.9 851770 Parts of phone sets 214 327 777 593 0.3 0.5 1.2 1.0 177.1 843149 Parts and attachments for derricks 688 755 610 546 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 (20.7) 100590 Corn (maize), other than seed corn 658 1,008 709 507 1.0 1.5 1.1 0.8 (22.9) 842951 Mechanical front-end shovel loaders 659 583 586 456 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8 (30.8) 381121 Additive for lub. oil cont. petro/bituminous mi 420 441 442 409 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 (2.6) 382200 Composite diagnostic/lab reagents, exc. pharma 427 392 448 383 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 (10.3) 284410 Natural uranium & compounds, alloys & ceramic 126 324 623 369 0.2 0.5 1.0 0.6 193.2 Total 66,213 68,394 63,421 59,808 University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 35 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, Northeast Illinois State Economic Composition and Change Department of Defense Contracts Trends in Defense Spending in the U.S. In FY 2015, the Department of Defense (DoD) spent $408 billion on payroll and contracts in the United States, which corresponds to approximately 2.3% of U.S. GDP. Of this amount, $134.8 billion were on personnel and $273.5 billion were on contracts. Defense contracts spending has declined in recent years (Figure 25). From FY 2012 to 2013, DoD contract spending in the United States declined from $320.4 billion to $302.6 billion; in FY 2014 it further decreased to $281.8 billion before falling to $273.5 billion in FY 2015. In FY 2015, contract spending occurred in four major items: $129.8 were in supplies and equipment (47%), $104 were in services (38%), $28.9 were in research and development (11%), and $10.9 were in construction (4%). 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Figure 25: DoD Contract Spending in the U.S. (in current dollars) 336.8 335.9 331.4 320.4 302.6 311.7 281.8 273.5 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Trends in Defense Spending in Illinois According to defense spending data measured based on the time of performance of contracts, $7.0 billion were spent in the state in 2015 (up from $5.6 billion in 2014). Of that amount, $129.8 were in supplies and equipment (64%); $104 were in services (24%); $28.9 were in research and development (6%); $10.9 were in construction (6%); $2.2 billion were on personnel and $4.2 billion on construction (Defense Spending by State Fiscal Year 2015). DoD purchases in Illinois is more concentrated on manufactured products than from other states. Compared to the distribution of spending at the national level, defense spending in Illinois is concentrated in supplies and equipment, an indication that manufacturing firms rely more on DoD contracts than non- manufacturing firms. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 36 State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, Northeast Illinois State Economic Composition and Change According to defense spending data estimated based on dollars obligated, $5.3 billion were pent in the state in 2015 (up from $3.2 billion in 2014). Based on this estimate, since 2006, the Department of Defense has spent at least $3 billion dollars in contracts annually in Illinois (Figure 7 23). Although these contracts constitute around 1 percent of the gross state product (which is substantially less than in many other states), they support a large industrial base and are crucial for local businesses in certain industries (Table 11). Overall, the number of DoD contracts performed in the state closely tracks the national trend. However, it is worth noting that the state’s share in national defense spending appears to be trending higher in recent years; such is the case between 2013 and 2015 when contracts performed in Illinois increased from $3.2 billion to $5.3 billion. 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 450,000 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 Figure 26: Department of Defense Contracts by Place of Performance, 2006-2015 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Illinois U.S. Of the $5.3 billion worth of DoD contracts performed in Illinois in 2015, the most contract dollars were received by businesses operating in manufacturing, wholesale trade, construction, and professional and technical services (Table 11). The top five industries include: Medical equipment merchant wholesalers (NAICS 423450); Construction (NAICS 237990); Search, detection, and navigation instruments (NAICS 334511); Heavy duty truck manufacturing (NAICS 336120); Engineering services (NAICS 541330); and Aircraft manufacturing (NAICS 336411). As discussed above, businesses in professional and technical services (NAICS 541), fabricated metal product manufacturing (NAICS 332), and machinery manufacturing (NAICS 333) appear to be carrying out a substantial portion of DoD contracts performed in the state. 7 Contracts spending data are not adjusted for inflation. Data are derived from USASpending.gov, which is a publicly available, searchable website operated by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Bureau of the Fiscal Service. Note that these figures for the regions could be a low-end or a high-end tally of contracting dollars because the data source includes only direct contracts and not subcontracts. University of Illinois, Nathalie P. Voorhees Center, Quad Cities Chamber 37 Illinois (current milions of dollars) U.S. (current millions of dollars) State of Illinois Defense Industry Adjustment (DIA) Program, Northeast Illinois State Economic Composition and Change Table 11: Illinois Industries with DoD Prime Contracts Valued $50 million or more, Fiscal Year 2015 NAICS Code 237990 336120 336411 423610 236220 541512 332992 517110 334111 424210 541519 423850 541511 Industry Other heavy construction Heavy duty truck manufacturing Aircraft manufacturing Elec. equip. and wiring merchant wholesalers Commercial building construction Computer systems design services Small arms ammunition manufacturing Wired telecommunications carriers Electronic computer manufacturing Druggists’ goods merchant wholesalers Other computer related services Service estab. equip. merchant wholesalers Custom computer programming services Sum of dollars Share obligated (%) 386,564,251 7.3 378,625,020 7.1 223,485,645 4.2 168,727,634 3.2 160,973,062 3.0 131,877,825 2.5 107,680,828 2.0 102,663,586 1.9 92,287,588 1.7 80,933,559 1.5 77,835,610 1.5 70,519,423 1.3 59,748,225 1.1 423450 Medical equipment merchant wholesalers 471,925,182 8.9 334511 Search, detection, and navigation instruments 383,627,578 7.2 541330 Engineering services 229,129,896 4.3 541712 Other physical and biological research 181,012,797 3.4 324110 Petroleum refineries 161,238,789 3.0 334419 Other electronic component manufacturing 153,326,575 2.9 332993 Ammunition, except sma

static1.squarespace.com/static/5685a7e8a12f44306f7879bf/t/592465fd5016e128c831daab/1495557632663/DIA+State+Economic+Profile_April+2017.pdf

The Shadow Government – Organization Chart – Powers That Beat ©️ 2020. THIS LIST IS ALSO THE ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE BLOCKCHAIN INITIATIVE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL INTELLIGENCE COMPLEX PARTNERS AND AEROSPACE AGENCIES

EDITORIAL THE SHADOW GOVERNMENT    1. The Executive Branch        Council on Foreign Relations        Trilateral Commission        The Bilderberg Group        National Security Council        Joint Chiefs of Staff        National Program Office        Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)    2. Intelligence Branch        National Security Agency (NSA)        National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)        National Reconnaissance Organization        Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)        Federal Bureau of Investigation, CounterContinue reading “The Shadow Government – Organization Chart – Powers That Beat ©️ 2020. THIS LIST IS ALSO THE ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE BLOCKCHAIN INITIATIVE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL INTELLIGENCE COMPLEX PARTNERS AND AEROSPACE AGENCIES”

The Shadow Government – Organization Chart – Powers That Beat ©️ 2020

EDITORIAL THE SHADOW GOVERNMENT    1. The Executive Branch        Council on Foreign Relations        Trilateral Commission        The Bilderberg Group        National Security Council        Joint Chiefs of Staff        National Program Office        Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)    2. Intelligence Branch        National Security Agency (NSA)        National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)        National Reconnaissance Organization        Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)        Federal Bureau of Investigation, CounterContinue reading “The Shadow Government – Organization Chart – Powers That Beat ©️ 2020”

DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS (DEW) or ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY WAVES (EMF) ARE USED TO REMOTELY HACK & MIMIC OR “ENGINEER” ILLNESS FREQUENCIES OF HEART PALPITATIONS, PANIC ATTACKS, ANEURYSMS, HEART ATTACKS, FLU LIKE SYMPTOMS, NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS OF HEADACHES, VERTIGO, DIZZINESS, NAUSEA, DEPRESSION, FATIGUE, SEIZURES, STROKES, etc.; CARDIAC PALPITATIONS, AREHYTTMIA, chest pain, shortness of breath , etc.; RESPIRATORY ILLNESS ASTHMA, pneumonia, bronchitis,ETC; DERMATOLOGICAL skin rash, itching, burning, facial flush, etc.; OPTHALMOLOGIC ILLNESSES pain or burning in eyes, pressure in/behind the eyes, deteriorating vision, floaters, cataracts, etc; DIGESTIVE OROBLEMS, abdominal pain, enlarged thyroid, testicular/ovarian pain, dryness of eyes lips tongue mouth, thirsty ness, dehydration, nosebleeds, intenal bleeding, altered sugar levels, immune abnormalities, redistribution of metals in the body, hair loss, teeth pain, deteriorating feelings, impaired sense of smell, tinnier

OHCHR | Call for submissions on Psychological Torture and Ill-Treatment. Call for input to a report: Psychosocial dynamics conducive to torture and ill-treatment Deadline: 21 June 2020 Issued by: Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Purpose: To inform the Special Rapporteur’s annual interim report to be presented to the General Assembly at its 75th Session in October 2020 Background Pursuant to General Assembly resolution 74/143, the Special Rapporteur is mandated to submit an annual interim report to the third committee. Objectives of the report on Psychosocial Dynamics conducive to torture and ill-treatment The report aims to explore some of the predominant psychosocial dynamics which, in practice, tend to undermine, circumvent or even paralyse institutional checks and balances, thereby creating environments of unchecked power conducive not only to corruption but also to torture and ill-treatment. The larger purpose of the report is to show that the widespread practice of torture and ill-treatment, as well as societal acquiescence or support for such abuse, are deeply rooted in collective psychosocial behavioural patterns, which either remain largely unconscious to the human mind, or are based on fundamentally flawed rationalizations and severely distorted perceptions of reality. Relevant phenomena include patterns such as ‘system justification’, ‘wilful ignorance’, ‘bystander apathy’, ‘diffusion of responsibility’, ‘obedience’, ‘utilitarian moral disengagement’ and ‘group based moral disengagement’. Key questions and types of input sought The upcoming report aims to demonstrate that torture and other forms of ill-treatment cannot be effectively eradicated in any governance system failing to fully acknowledge and rigorously mitigate the corrosive effect of such psychosocial dynamics through normative, institutional and policy measures ensuring full transparency and strict accountability for all exercise of governmental power. With a view to ensuring the broadest possible consultations despite the worldwide COVID-19 crisis, the Special Rapporteur invites electronic submissions from States, civil society, experts and other stakeholders, both on the relevant psychosocial dynamics conducive to torture and ill-treatment and on recommended normative, institutional and policy measures of prevention and mitigation. How and where to submit inputs

Your search WHAT ARE HUMAN RIGHTS? DONATE HOME ABOUT US ISSUES HUMAN RIGHTS BY COUNTRY WHERE WE WORK HUMAN RIGHTS BODIES NEWS AND EVENTS PUBLICATIONS AND RESOURCES English > Your Human Rights > Torture > SRTorture > Call for submissions on Psychological Torture and Ill-Treatment Call for input to a report: Psychosocial dynamics conducive toContinue reading “OHCHR | Call for submissions on Psychological Torture and Ill-Treatment. Call for input to a report: Psychosocial dynamics conducive to torture and ill-treatment Deadline: 21 June 2020 Issued by: Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Purpose: To inform the Special Rapporteur’s annual interim report to be presented to the General Assembly at its 75th Session in October 2020 Background Pursuant to General Assembly resolution 74/143, the Special Rapporteur is mandated to submit an annual interim report to the third committee. Objectives of the report on Psychosocial Dynamics conducive to torture and ill-treatment The report aims to explore some of the predominant psychosocial dynamics which, in practice, tend to undermine, circumvent or even paralyse institutional checks and balances, thereby creating environments of unchecked power conducive not only to corruption but also to torture and ill-treatment. The larger purpose of the report is to show that the widespread practice of torture and ill-treatment, as well as societal acquiescence or support for such abuse, are deeply rooted in collective psychosocial behavioural patterns, which either remain largely unconscious to the human mind, or are based on fundamentally flawed rationalizations and severely distorted perceptions of reality. Relevant phenomena include patterns such as ‘system justification’, ‘wilful ignorance’, ‘bystander apathy’, ‘diffusion of responsibility’, ‘obedience’, ‘utilitarian moral disengagement’ and ‘group based moral disengagement’. Key questions and types of input sought The upcoming report aims to demonstrate that torture and other forms of ill-treatment cannot be effectively eradicated in any governance system failing to fully acknowledge and rigorously mitigate the corrosive effect of such psychosocial dynamics through normative, institutional and policy measures ensuring full transparency and strict accountability for all exercise of governmental power. With a view to ensuring the broadest possible consultations despite the worldwide COVID-19 crisis, the Special Rapporteur invites electronic submissions from States, civil society, experts and other stakeholders, both on the relevant psychosocial dynamics conducive to torture and ill-treatment and on recommended normative, institutional and policy measures of prevention and mitigation. How and where to submit inputs”

Emerging disruptive technologies, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, quantum computing, and neuroscience will dramatically alter the global security environment. PRISM V.8,N.3 “Singularity” maps this evolving challenge and propose solutions. Click here to read the latest issue → PRISM, NDU’s journal of complex operations, promotes informed discourse among national and international security professionals concerning our complex global security environment and whole-of-community efforts to meet longstanding and emerging challenges.

ndupress.ndu.edu/Portals/68/Documents/prism/prism_8-3/prism_8-3.pdf

DELOITTE MILITARY READINESS. INDUSTRY 4.0. How Industry 4.0 can reframe military readiness | Deloitte Insights

By topic By sector Spotlight Article Military readiness How emerging technologies can transform defense capabilities 16 July 2018 Dennis Schultz United States Joe Mariani United States Isaac Jenkins United States See more Readiness is an age-old focus for militaries. As budget pressures continue to build, digital resources that are now maturing—data science, cloud computing, andContinue reading “DELOITTE MILITARY READINESS. INDUSTRY 4.0. How Industry 4.0 can reframe military readiness | Deloitte Insights”

NETCENTS-2 l Deloitte US l U.S. Federal Government

Services NETCENTS-2 Solutions Enterprise Integration and Service Management NETCENTS-2 (NC-2) is a multiple award, multiple Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) program with an estimated value of $24.2B. The goal of NC-2 is to support the Air Force mission to deliver the right information, in the right format, to the right place, at the right time –Continue reading “NETCENTS-2 l Deloitte US l U.S. Federal Government”

deloitte chicago military contracts. – Google Search. WAS TOLD BIA A COWORKER THAT DELOITTE IS BEHIND WHAT HAPPENED TO ME WHICH IS WHY IM IN THIS TARGETING PROGRAM. I AM A STATE OF ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES EMPLOYEE FOR THE KANKAKEE COUNTY OFFICE. DELOITTE CHICAGO AND DELOITTE LLC DOES DEFENSE, AEROSPACE, INTELLIGENCE CONTRACTS, and also COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, AI, AUGMENTING COMPUTER PROGRAMS, AND OTHER PROGRAMS ON BEHALF OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES. I HAVE BEEN TARGETED SONCE 2015- CURRENT. HERE ATE JUST A GOOGLE LOOKUP OF DELOITTE DEFENSE CONTRACTS Search Results Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Web results NETCENTS-2 l Deloitte US l U.S. Federal Government Deloitte is a prime awardee under the NC-2 EISM contract, which is a multiple award IDIQ for the United States Air Force with a total contract … Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Defense, Security & Justice Services | Deloitte US Tax · Consulting · Audit & Assurance · Deloitte Private Company Services · Mergers & Acquisitions · Risk & Financial Advisory · Analytics · Cloud … Deloitte › pages › careers › articles Military Veterans | Deloitte US Military Vets. Eric Johnson | Consulting. I spent ten years as a US Army officer, deploying to Iraq and Afghanistan. When I decided to transition … Missing: contracts. ‎| Must include: contracts. Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Federal Government Contract Vehicles l Deloitte US These include Government-Wide Acquisition Contracts (GWACs), Multiple Agency Contracts ( MACs), General … Air Force NETCENTS 2 You visited this page on 3/17/19. Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Deloitte and SEAPORT-E | Deloitte US | U.S. Federal Government Learn more about this contract vehicle … A comprehensive portfolio of consulting, audit, tax and financial advisory services … Navy SEAPORT-E. Deloitte › us-ites-3s-contractPDF AWARD/CONTRACT – Deloitte Sep 25, 2018 · The US Army Contracting Command – Rock Island (ACC-RI) … In this contract vehicle, Deloitte Consulting LLP will provide … PEOPLE ALSO SEARCH FOR Deloitte government contracts Deloitte military recruiting Deloitte careers Deloitte Consulting careers Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Web results GSA Schedules | Deloitte US 541611. Management and Financial Consulting, Acquisition and Grants … Financial and Business Solutions (FABS) GSA Schedule Contracts. Clearance Jobs › news › deloitte… Deloitte Wins $64M Navy Contract for Business and Tech Management Support … May 23, 2019 · Your source for Defense Contracts news and … Deloitte Consulting LLP, Arlington, Virginia, is awarded … Clearance Jobs › news › deloitte… Deloitte to Support DoD Personnel Vetting, Background Investigation Transfer from … Sep 28, 2018 · Your source for Defense Contracts news and security-cleared … Cherokee Nation Management & Consulting LLC, … GovCon Wire › s=deloitte deloitte | GovCon Wire A new Deloitte report has identified challenges U.S. defense contractors and suppliers face when … Mike Canning, a principal with Deloitte Consulting, has been named head of the company’s … Get the answer you’re looking for added to the web Your question will be shared anonymously with online publishers who may be interested in answering it Make sure you don’t include any private info Learn more By submitting a question you couldn’t find the answer to, you can help Google and publishers learn what info is missing from the web. Google will analyze your question and share it with publishers who may be interested in answering it. That means the next time you search for your question, you might find a new page with the answer. Please note that Google doesn’t write or control the content on web pages you find through Search. Because these questions are shared with publishers, please make sure you don’t submit any personal info (such as your phone number, email address, or credit card number) that you wouldn’t want shared publicly. Got it Submit RELATED SEARCHES Deloitte Navy contract Deloitte CORE Leadership Program Reddit Government IDIQ contract vehicles Deloitte recruiting Deloitte irvine Deloitte Defense Security and Justice jobs Work at Deloitte Deloitte portal

× Search Modes ALLNEWSIMAGESMAPSVIDEOSSHOPPINGBOOKSFLIGHTSSEARCH TOOLS Search Results Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Web results NETCENTS-2 l Deloitte US l U.S. Federal Government Deloitte is a prime awardee under the NC-2 EISM contract, which is a multiple award IDIQ for the United States Air Force with a total contract … Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Defense, SecurityContinue reading “deloitte chicago military contracts. – Google Search. WAS TOLD BIA A COWORKER THAT DELOITTE IS BEHIND WHAT HAPPENED TO ME WHICH IS WHY IM IN THIS TARGETING PROGRAM. I AM A STATE OF ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES EMPLOYEE FOR THE KANKAKEE COUNTY OFFICE. DELOITTE CHICAGO AND DELOITTE LLC DOES DEFENSE, AEROSPACE, INTELLIGENCE CONTRACTS, and also COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, AI, AUGMENTING COMPUTER PROGRAMS, AND OTHER PROGRAMS ON BEHALF OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES. I HAVE BEEN TARGETED SONCE 2015- CURRENT. HERE ATE JUST A GOOGLE LOOKUP OF DELOITTE DEFENSE CONTRACTS Search Results Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Web results NETCENTS-2 l Deloitte US l U.S. Federal Government Deloitte is a prime awardee under the NC-2 EISM contract, which is a multiple award IDIQ for the United States Air Force with a total contract … Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Defense, Security & Justice Services | Deloitte US Tax · Consulting · Audit & Assurance · Deloitte Private Company Services · Mergers & Acquisitions · Risk & Financial Advisory · Analytics · Cloud … Deloitte › pages › careers › articles Military Veterans | Deloitte US Military Vets. Eric Johnson | Consulting. I spent ten years as a US Army officer, deploying to Iraq and Afghanistan. When I decided to transition … Missing: contracts. ‎| Must include: contracts. Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Federal Government Contract Vehicles l Deloitte US These include Government-Wide Acquisition Contracts (GWACs), Multiple Agency Contracts ( MACs), General … Air Force NETCENTS 2 You visited this page on 3/17/19. Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Deloitte and SEAPORT-E | Deloitte US | U.S. Federal Government Learn more about this contract vehicle … A comprehensive portfolio of consulting, audit, tax and financial advisory services … Navy SEAPORT-E. Deloitte › us-ites-3s-contractPDF AWARD/CONTRACT – Deloitte Sep 25, 2018 · The US Army Contracting Command – Rock Island (ACC-RI) … In this contract vehicle, Deloitte Consulting LLP will provide … PEOPLE ALSO SEARCH FOR Deloitte government contracts Deloitte military recruiting Deloitte careers Deloitte Consulting careers Deloitte › public-sector › solutions Web results GSA Schedules | Deloitte US 541611. Management and Financial Consulting, Acquisition and Grants … Financial and Business Solutions (FABS) GSA Schedule Contracts. Clearance Jobs › news › deloitte… Deloitte Wins $64M Navy Contract for Business and Tech Management Support … May 23, 2019 · Your source for Defense Contracts news and … Deloitte Consulting LLP, Arlington, Virginia, is awarded … Clearance Jobs › news › deloitte… Deloitte to Support DoD Personnel Vetting, Background Investigation Transfer from … Sep 28, 2018 · Your source for Defense Contracts news and security-cleared … Cherokee Nation Management & Consulting LLC, … GovCon Wire › s=deloitte deloitte | GovCon Wire A new Deloitte report has identified challenges U.S. defense contractors and suppliers face when … Mike Canning, a principal with Deloitte Consulting, has been named head of the company’s … Get the answer you’re looking for added to the web Your question will be shared anonymously with online publishers who may be interested in answering it Make sure you don’t include any private info Learn more By submitting a question you couldn’t find the answer to, you can help Google and publishers learn what info is missing from the web. Google will analyze your question and share it with publishers who may be interested in answering it. That means the next time you search for your question, you might find a new page with the answer. Please note that Google doesn’t write or control the content on web pages you find through Search. Because these questions are shared with publishers, please make sure you don’t submit any personal info (such as your phone number, email address, or credit card number) that you wouldn’t want shared publicly. Got it Submit RELATED SEARCHES Deloitte Navy contract Deloitte CORE Leadership Program Reddit Government IDIQ contract vehicles Deloitte recruiting Deloitte irvine Deloitte Defense Security and Justice jobs Work at Deloitte Deloitte portal”

From PSYOP to MindWar: The Psychology of Victory by  Colonel Paul E. Valley Commander with Major Michael A. Aquino PSYOP Research & Analysis Team Leader Headquarters, 7th Psychological Operations Group United States Army Reserve Presidio of San Francisco, California 1980 https://www.wanttoknow.info/mk/mindwar-michael-aquino.pdf From PSYOP to MindWar:The Psychology of Victory – Position Paper by US Colonel Paul E. Valley and Major Michael A. Aquino, PSYOP Research & Analysis Team Leader (1980) A report authored by then Major Aquino and Colonel Paul E. Vallely, titled “From Psyop to Mindwar.” This report bears a “Top Secret” notation and was circulated to the US “Psyop Community and the US Army War College, amongst others. While the address list on the copy in the possession of this writer has been mostly redacted, it is possible to make out the words “Office of the Chief of Staff” which suggests that a copy was also sent to the Joint Chiefs. Arguing that the US lost the Vietnam War not because they were outfought but, rather, “out-Psyoped” “in the streets of American cities,” the report called for greater emphasis to be placed on “MindWar” directed through the US Media. The report added that “coercive” measures if they are to work effectively must remain undetected. Delivery mechanisms for making targets “receptive to ideas” would, the report argued, need to take full advantage of the ability of electromagnetic weapons such as Extremely Low Frequency Waves (ELF). In other words, Mind Control technologies then in development. Aquino’s and Vallely’s study clearly hit the spot inside the Pentagon. Most of us are now aware that the military has for some years now, been able to manipulate news and “spin” the major media when it comes to reporting of US military involvement overseas. The lessons of being “Out-Psyoped” at home have been taken on board and are not to be repeated in the future. That the lesson was indeed learned was clearly demonstrated in the reporting of the 1991 Gulf War, when CNN stole the show due to the access it had to direct feeds from US military satellites. For those who continue to harbour doubts that mind control technologies form part of the US military arsenal, they need do no more than point their internet browser towards the US Navy’s Joint Programme Office – Special Technologies Countermeasures website and read about the Technical Information Exchange Group’s (TIEG) planned “special invitation only” conference hosted by the United Stated Special Operations Command at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Florida, scheduled for the Autumn 2002. The conference is designed to “facilitate the interaction and information exchange between the developers and users of special, nonkinetic technologies (my emphasis). [33] The category of “non-kinetic technologies listed for “operational planning” and discussion are as follows: * Electromagnetic Weapons * Acoustic Psycho-Correction * Chemical Attitude Adjustment * Visual Stimulation & Illusions * Material Degraders * Non-Penetrating Projectiles * Incapacitants * High Pressure Water Systems * Concealed Weapon Detection * Electronic Disablers * Acoustic Systems * Combustion Inhibition * Immobilizers * Olfactory Chemicals * Laser Systems Number two on this list, “Acoustic Psycho-Correction” is the self same “Mind Control” technology that has the ability to “control minds and alter behaviour of civilians and soldiers” and which also “involves the transmission of specific commands via static or white noise bands into the human subconscious without upsetting other intellectual functions,” that is aimed at altering the “behaviour on willing and unwilling subjects,” reported in the Defence News article discussed earlier on page 3. Text from “Masters of Persuasion” – by David Guyatt (2005) #NeuroScience #SE #InfoSec #BCI #Military #Cryptocracy

From PSYOP to MindWar: The Psychology of Victory by Colonel Paul E. Valley Commander with Major Michael A. Aquino PSYOP Research & Analysis Team Leader Headquarters, 7th Psychological Operations Group United States Army Reserve Presidio of San Francisco, California 1980 https://www.wanttoknow.info/mk/mindwar-michael-aquino.pdf

http://www.wanttoknow.info/mk/mindwar-michael-aquino.pdf

I am a targeted individual in KANKAKEE county Illinois since 2015 that I am aware of. SHADOW GOVERNMENT-ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL INTELLIGENCE COMPLEX ​ LIST OF PARTNERS IS ALSO LISTED AS SHADOW GOVERNMENT MILITARY INDUSTRIAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES. THIS LIST IS UNDER DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE,UNIVERSITY ILLINOIS URBANA CHAMPAIGN, UILABS, DMDII, MXD, CITYTECH FRONT COMPANIES, MILITARY CONTRACTORS FOR WHATS CALLED THE ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE BLOCKCHAIN INITIATIVE WHICH IS THE INTERNET OF THINGS. THESE AGENCIES ARE ALSO MENTIONED IN ELANA FREELANDS BOOK UNDER AN IONIZED SKY FROM CHEMTRAILS TO SPACEFENCE.

SHADOW GOVERNMENT-ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL INTELLIGENCE COMPLEX ​ LIST OF PARTNERS IS ALSO LISTED AS SHADOW GOVERNMENT MILITARY INDUSTRIAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES. THIS LIST IS UNDER UNIVERSITY ILLINOIS URBANA CHAMPAIGN UILABS DMDII MXD CITYTECH FRONT COMPANIES. MENTIONED IN ELANA FREELANDS BOOK UNDER AN IONIZED SKY FROM CHEMTRAILS TO SPACEFENCE.

NSA Whistleblower Reveals Covert Torture Program on RT America – Activist Post

ALTERNATIVE NEWS & INDEPENDENT VIEWS HOME ACTIVISM NSA Whistleblower Reveals Covert Torture Program on RT America TOPICS:Chevalier De LorimierConspiracyDirected Energy WeaponsHuman RightsMind ControlNSAWhistleblowers JUNE 12, 2020 by Chevalier de Lorimier On April 11, 2020, the former Technical Director of the NSA, William Binney, and Pulitzer-prize winning Chris Hedges were discussing on RT America TV theContinue reading “NSA Whistleblower Reveals Covert Torture Program on RT America – Activist Post”

I became a victim in 2015 via my job with the state of Illinois. The department of defense has contracts under front companies uilabs. DMDII. MxD. CityTech using the university ILlinois urbana Urbana Champaign, military contractors for the Illinois SmartState blockchain Military Industrial Intelligence Complex using contracts for the internet of things. The military industrial complex used workplace mobbing, smearing, Harassment, aerial surveillance in Kankakee county Illinois. Chicago Quantum computing. Fusion centers CPIC (Chicago) AND STIC (Springfield Illinois).

http://www.youtube.com/watch

USC 1520A​ RESTRICTIONS ON THE HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIATION , OR NUCLEAR AGENTS US CODE 1520A- RESTRICTIONS ON USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS [USC02] 50 USC Ch. 32: CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title50/chapter32&edition=prelim 50 U.S.C. 1520a – Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents * Summary Document in Context Publication Title United States Code, 1994 Edition, Supplement 3, Title 50 – WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE Category Bills and Statutes Collection United States Code SuDoc Class Number Y 1.2/5: Contained Within Title 50 – WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE CHAPTER 32 – CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM Sec. 1520a – Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents Contains section 1520a Date 1997 Laws In Effect As Of Date January 26, 1998 Positive Law No Disposition standard Source Credit Pub. L. 105-85, div. A, title X, §1078, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1915. Statutes at Large References 83 Stat. 209 111 Stat. 1915 Public Law References Public Law 91-121, Public Law 105-85 §1520. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1078(g), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1916, and Pub. L. 105–277, div. I, title VI, §601, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–886 Section, Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §808, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 334; Pub. L. 97–375, title II, §203(a)(1), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1822, related to use by the Department of Defense of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents, accounting to congressional committees with respect to experiments and studies, and notification of local civilian officials. §1520a. Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents (a) Prohibited activities The Secretary of Defense may not conduct (directly or by contract)— (1) any test or experiment involving the use of a chemical agent or biological agent on a civilian population; or (2) any other testing of a chemical agent or biological agent on human subjects. (b) Exceptions Subject to subsections (c), (d), and (e), the prohibition in subsection (a) does not apply to a test or experiment carried out for any of the following purposes: (1) Any peaceful purpose that is related to a medical, therapeutic, pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, or research activity. (2) Any purpose that is directly related to protection against toxic chemicals or biological weapons and agents. (3) Any law enforcement purpose, including any purpose related to riot control. (c) Informed consent required The Secretary of Defense may conduct a test or experiment described in subsection (b) only if informed consent to the testing was obtained from each human subject in advance of the testing on that subject. (d) Prior notice to Congress Not later than 30 days after the date of final approval within the Department of Defense of plans for any experiment or study to be conducted by the Department of Defense (whether directly or under contract) involving the use of human subjects for the testing of a chemical agent or a biological agent, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report setting forth a full accounting of those plans, and the experiment or study may then be conducted only after the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date such report is received by those committees. (e) “Biological agent” defined In this section, the term “biological agent” means any micro-organism (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiac, or protozoa), pathogen, or infectious substance, and any naturally occurring, bioengineered, or synthesized component of any such micro-organism, pathogen, or infectious substance, whatever its origin or method of production, that is capable of causing— (1) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism; (2) deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or materials of any kind; or (3) deleterious alteration of the environment. (Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1078, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1915; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(4), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774.) Codification Section is comprised of section 1078 of Pub. L. 105–85. Subsec. (f) of section 1078 of Pub. L. 105–85 amended section 1523(b) of this title. Subsec. (g) of section 1078 of Pub. L. 105–85 repealed section 1520 of this title. Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998, and not as part of Pub. L. 91–121, title IV, §409, Nov. 19, 1969, 83 Stat. 209, which comprises this chapter. Amendments 1999—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.

§1520. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1078(g), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1916, and Pub. L. 105–277, div. I, title VI, §601, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–886 Section, Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §808, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 334; Pub. L. 97–375, title II, §203(a)(1), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat.Continue reading “USC 1520A​ RESTRICTIONS ON THE HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIATION , OR NUCLEAR AGENTS US CODE 1520A- RESTRICTIONS ON USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS [USC02] 50 USC Ch. 32: CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title50/chapter32&edition=prelim 50 U.S.C. 1520a – Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents * Summary Document in Context Publication Title United States Code, 1994 Edition, Supplement 3, Title 50 – WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE Category Bills and Statutes Collection United States Code SuDoc Class Number Y 1.2/5: Contained Within Title 50 – WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE CHAPTER 32 – CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM Sec. 1520a – Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents Contains section 1520a Date 1997 Laws In Effect As Of Date January 26, 1998 Positive Law No Disposition standard Source Credit Pub. L. 105-85, div. A, title X, §1078, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1915. Statutes at Large References 83 Stat. 209 111 Stat. 1915 Public Law References Public Law 91-121, Public Law 105-85 §1520. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1078(g), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1916, and Pub. L. 105–277, div. I, title VI, §601, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–886 Section, Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §808, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 334; Pub. L. 97–375, title II, §203(a)(1), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1822, related to use by the Department of Defense of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents, accounting to congressional committees with respect to experiments and studies, and notification of local civilian officials. §1520a. Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents (a) Prohibited activities The Secretary of Defense may not conduct (directly or by contract)— (1) any test or experiment involving the use of a chemical agent or biological agent on a civilian population; or (2) any other testing of a chemical agent or biological agent on human subjects. (b) Exceptions Subject to subsections (c), (d), and (e), the prohibition in subsection (a) does not apply to a test or experiment carried out for any of the following purposes: (1) Any peaceful purpose that is related to a medical, therapeutic, pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, or research activity. (2) Any purpose that is directly related to protection against toxic chemicals or biological weapons and agents. (3) Any law enforcement purpose, including any purpose related to riot control. (c) Informed consent required The Secretary of Defense may conduct a test or experiment described in subsection (b) only if informed consent to the testing was obtained from each human subject in advance of the testing on that subject. (d) Prior notice to Congress Not later than 30 days after the date of final approval within the Department of Defense of plans for any experiment or study to be conducted by the Department of Defense (whether directly or under contract) involving the use of human subjects for the testing of a chemical agent or a biological agent, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report setting forth a full accounting of those plans, and the experiment or study may then be conducted only after the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date such report is received by those committees. (e) “Biological agent” defined In this section, the term “biological agent” means any micro-organism (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiac, or protozoa), pathogen, or infectious substance, and any naturally occurring, bioengineered, or synthesized component of any such micro-organism, pathogen, or infectious substance, whatever its origin or method of production, that is capable of causing— (1) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism; (2) deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or materials of any kind; or (3) deleterious alteration of the environment. (Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1078, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1915; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(4), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774.) Codification Section is comprised of section 1078 of Pub. L. 105–85. Subsec. (f) of section 1078 of Pub. L. 105–85 amended section 1523(b) of this title. Subsec. (g) of section 1078 of Pub. L. 105–85 repealed section 1520 of this title. Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998, and not as part of Pub. L. 91–121, title IV, §409, Nov. 19, 1969, 83 Stat. 209, which comprises this chapter. Amendments 1999—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.”

United States—Masters of Space? The US Space Command’s “Vision for 2020” Thoughts by Jonathan Granoff, President, Global Security Institute, and Craig Eisendrath, Senior Fellow, Center for International Policy United States—Masters of Space? The US Space Command’s “Vision for 2020” https://gsinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/s3/assets/docs/Vision2020_Analysis.pdf

gsinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/s3/assets/docs/Vision2020_Analysis.pdf

Underground Knowledge — A discussion group – MIND CONTROL: Were secret mind control technologies unleashed on Iraqis during the First Gulf War? Showing 1-4 of 4

PSY-OPS WEAPONRY USED IN THE FIRST GULF WAR — http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/cie… Excerpt from this article: “For years, rumors have persisted that the United States Department of Defense has been engaged in research and development of ultra-sophisticated mind- altering technology. Confirmation of this came to me recently in the form of two ITV News Bureau Ltd (London)Continue reading “Underground Knowledge — A discussion group – MIND CONTROL: Were secret mind control technologies unleashed on Iraqis during the First Gulf War? Showing 1-4 of 4”

Report: Nonlethal Weapons Could Target Brain, Mimic Schizophrenia | WIRED

crazy, bizarre less-lethal weapons that have been proposed, the use of microwaves to target the human mind remains the most disturbing. The question has always been: is this anything more than urban myth? We may not have the final answer to this question, but a newly declassified Pentagon report, Bioeffects of Selected Non-Lethal Weapons ,Continue reading “Report: Nonlethal Weapons Could Target Brain, Mimic Schizophrenia | WIRED”

The CODE OF THE BRAIN. The 1950s Secret Discovery of the Code of the Brain: U.S. and Soviet Scientists Have Developed the Key to Consciousness for Military Purposes. How The U.S. Government Won the Arms Race to Control Man A documentary with quotes by leading scientists, professionals and several independent sources By Cheryl Welsh, copyright May 1998 http://www.mindjustice.org/book.pdf Ms. Adams

http://www.mindjustice.org/book.pdf

The 1950s Secret Discovery of the Code of the Brain: U.S. and Soviet Scientists Have Developed the Key to Consciousness for Military Purposes. How The U.S. Government Won the Arms Race to Control Man A documentary with quotes by leading scientists, professionals and several independent sources By Cheryl Welsh, copyright May 1998 http://mindjustice.org

http://www.mindjustice.org/book.pdf

MK ULTRA & TARGETING | Elana Freeland

Sigur Rós – Fjögur píanó [Official Music Video] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8i9vEBWnu9I   Franklin & Madeline http://www.schirmerstudio.com/fm/   Cinderella Castle Mosaic Murals http://land.allears.net/blogs/jackspence/2010/01/cinderella_castle_mosaic_mural.html   Multiple Personalities https://topdocumentaryfilms.com/multiple-personalities/   Programming the nation 2011 HD   MK Ultra Mind Control Documentary | Why Do You Worship Celebrities? They’re Just Mind Control Slaves https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=82&v=KKLw8xhtrZ8   A New Dance Show Tackles PopContinue reading “MK ULTRA & TARGETING | Elana Freeland”

HOW THE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL INTELLIGENCE COMPLEX AND AEROSPACE MILITARY PARTNERS USE THE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY FIELDS TO MANIPULATE HUMAN HEALTH USING OUR BODIES ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FOR EACH AREA OF THE BODY TO MIMIC MENTAL ILLNESS, INDUCE CANCER, BRAIN DAMAGE, HEART ATTACK, ANEURYSM, OR ATTACKS THE EMF OF OTHER AREAS OF THE BODY. https://youtu.be/z4uKJcqFjwI

http://www.youtube.com/watch

Other recipients of the Band 14 grants included the Virginia State Police, Arkansas State Police, Massachusetts State Police, Honolulu County (Hawaii) Department of Defense, Marshall (Michigan) Fire Department, Stamford (Connecticut) Fire Department and Post Falls (Idaho) Police Department.

MILITARY DOCTRINE of “FULL-SPECTRUM DOMINANCE.” Google Searchhttps://www.google.com/search?q=military+doctrine+of+%22Full-Spectrum+Dominance.%22&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&hl=en-us&client=safari. The United States Department of Defense defines “full-spectrum superiority” as: The cumulative effect of dominance in the air, land, maritime, and space domains and information environment, which includes cyberspace INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OF HUMAN BRAIN AND BODY ENERGY WAVES): SEE ARTICLE “THE MIND HAS NO FIREWALL “ BY THE US ARMY which is the hacking of the brain and human body electromagnetic energy fields which is spectrum; , that permits the conduct of joint operations without effective opposition or prohibitive interference.

The United States Department of Defense defines “full-spectrum superiority” as: The cumulative effect of dominance in the air, land, maritime, and space domains and information environment, which includes cyberspace, that permits the conduct of joint operations without effective opposition or prohibitive interference. — Read on http://www.google.com/search

military doctrine of “Full-Spectrum Dominance.” – Google Search. military doctrine of “Full-Spectrum Dominance.” – Google Search https://www.google.com/search?q=military+doctrine+of+%22Full-Spectrum+Dominance.%22&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&hl=en-us&client=safari The United States Department of Defense defines “full-spectrum superiority” as: The cumulative effect of dominance in the air, land, maritime, and space domains and information environment, which includes cyberspace, that permits the conduct of joint operations without effective opposition or prohibitive interference.

The United States Department of Defense defines “full-spectrum superiority” as: The cumulative effect of dominance in the air, land, maritime, and space domains and information environment, which includes cyberspace, that permits the conduct of joint operations without effective opposition or prohibitive interference. — Read on http://www.google.com/search

ILLINOIS EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (DEPARTMENT HOMELAND SECURITY) RECEIVED 2016 FULL SPECTRUM GRANT

MY TARGETING WORKPLACE MOBBING FROM COWORKERS HARASSMENT BEGAN 2016 @ STATE OF ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES KANKAKEE COUNTY FCRC HUB. IEMA FULL SPECTRUM GRANT 2016https://www2.illinois.gov/iema/Info/Pages/082416.aspx IEMA Receives $14 Million Grant for Emergency Response Communications Upgrade August 24, 2016  Will suppo​rt state’s activities toward nationwide public safety communications SPRINGFIELD – The state of Illinois’ efforts to relocateContinue reading “ILLINOIS EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (DEPARTMENT HOMELAND SECURITY) RECEIVED 2016 FULL SPECTRUM GRANT”

(THIS IS THE ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX PARTNERS UNDER UILABS, DMDII, MxD, CITYTECH and UNIVERSITY ILLINOIS URBANA CHAMPAIGN FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MILITARY & AEROSPACE CONTRACTS FROM 2014-CURRENT).

We are entering a Space Age, but not the kind President Kennedy originally envisioned. This Space Age is replacing resource wars and redefines planet earth as a “battlespace” in accordance with the military doctrine of “Full-Spectrum Dominance.” This book examines how chemtrails and ionospheric heaters like the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) in AlaskaContinue reading “(THIS IS THE ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX PARTNERS UNDER UILABS, DMDII, MxD, CITYTECH and UNIVERSITY ILLINOIS URBANA CHAMPAIGN FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MILITARY & AEROSPACE CONTRACTS FROM 2014-CURRENT).”

CHEMTRAILS THE SECRET WARhttps://youtu.be/U-5VnMIiKPYCHEMTRAILS: THE SECRET WAR MILITARY BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION. WEATHER MODIFICATION. SICKNESS AND DISEASE. RADIATION. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. SIGNALS. CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL RADIATION NUCLEAR ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX DEFENSE & AEROSPACE PARTNERS.

CHEMTRAILS THE SECRET WAR https://youtu.be/U-5VnMIiKPY CHEMTRAILS: THE SECRET WAR MILITARY BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION. WEATHER MODIFICATION. SICKNESS AND DISEASE. RADIATION. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. SIGNALS. CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL RADIATION NUCLEAR ILLINOIS SMARTSTATE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX DEFENSE & AEROSPACE PARTNERS.

http://www.youtube.com/watch

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AND INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES. BIOEFFECTS OF SELECTED NON LETHAL WEAPONS.

http://www.slavery.org.uk/Bioeffects_of_Selected_Non-Lethal_Weapons.pdf DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY. THE BIOEFFECTS OF SELECTED NON LETHAL WEAPONS http://www.slavery.org.uk/Bioeffects_of_Selected_Non-Lethal_Weapons.pdf  Freedomof Infomation/ PrivacyOffice Nft,DonaldFriedman ConfidentialLegal Correspondence ll25 Thid Steet Napa,Califomia94559-3015 DearMr. Friedman: References: uxtllD D E P A R T M E NO TF T H EA R M Y tlAltS Affy laTttucl|lct Af,o ffqjtny ttDof foircloic! coina o otContinue reading “DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AND INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES. BIOEFFECTS OF SELECTED NON LETHAL WEAPONS.”

BIOMOLECULAR COMPUTING or DNA /NANO/AI/MOLECULAR COMPUTING DNA AI COMPUTER- Molecular- Nano  DNA MOLECULAR COMPUTING BT MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX  https://independz.wixsite.com/dna-ai-integration     IIn this PDF you will see where we are today and where this is going and why some targetted individuals are showing signs more prevalent then others in regard to the symptoms of nano poisoning which is impacting dna on levels not seen— when you look at the data -on speculation from my part in regard to some of the reasons- you will find that the r*d is being done on live subjects–without consent being done at the expense of the general population–new supplements coming out today are meant to hijack and further experiment on dna /nano/ai/molecular computing–after all we are living cells and dna that function as the best operating system with the multitude of variable functions our systems do and now you can see through the federal agenda the impact of dna and carbon c 60 and other things–the terra hertz freq destroy dna and cells and allows for better integration of this tech on a cellular and atomic level–so don’t be deceived in buy products like c -60 or hydrogen or anything else that has the ability to either exponentially distort or destroy ones dna —the experiment has been on going and due to the foods being loaded with nanosilca since the 60s to today’s current epigenetic and transgenetic materials in the food supply altering the genetic code and disrupting the dna program—-this is all being done–to further study how to turn your dna into hardware for ai– another speculation–or observation one to make everyone think–if in the georgia guide stones they want 500million and the protocols of zion are saying 600million what will they need people for since ai is already operating everything and machines now can do everything people can do –what would be the point of having people? –the only function they would have is to be the functional hardware for ai operations-data storage -computations  that would exceed petascale or exascale speeds doing parallel computations and it’s ability to grow and continue in it’s operations in regard to upgrade and learn something to consider in this experiment–the military industrial complex has never had any restraint and could circumvent regulations of exploiting there own citizenry with experimentation –they would even use  health products pharamceutical products radiation tech devices  frequencies or what ever there agenda may be

On February 28, 2020, the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, Professor Nils Melzer, issued his World Report on “Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.” This report included a definition of “Cybertorture,” the Crime Against Humanity where millions of targeted victims worldwide are remotely assaulted with Electromagnetic Weapons in actions directed via computer, often from Supercomputers.(A/HRC/43/49) Cybertorture:A particular area of concern, which does not appear to have received sufficient attention, is the possible use of various forms of information and communication technology (“cybertechnology”) for the purposes of torture. Although the promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the internet has been repeatedly addressed by the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/32/L.20; A/HRC/38/L.10/Rev.1), torture has been understood primarily as a tool used to obstruct the exercise of the right to freedom of expression on the internet, and not as a violation of human rights that could be committed through the use of cybertechnology.This seems surprising given that some of the characteristics of cyber-space make it an environment highly conducive to abuse and exploitation, most notably a vast power asymmetry, virtually guaranteed anonymity, and almost complete impunity. States, corporate actors and organized criminals not only have the capacity to conduct cyberoperations inflicting severe suffering on countless individuals, but may well decide to do so for any of the purposes of torture. It is therefore necessary to briefly explore, in a preliminary manner, the conceivability and basic contours of what could be described as “cybertorture”.In practice, cybertechnology already plays the role of an “enabler” in the perpetration of both physical and psychological forms of torture, most notably through the collection and transmission of surveillance information and instructions to interrogators, through the dissemination of audio or video recordings of torture or murder for the purposes of intimidation, or even live streaming of child sexual abuse “on demand” of voyeuristic clients (A/HRC/28/56, para.71), and increasingly also through the remote control or manipulation of stun belts (A/72/178, para.51), medical implants and, conceivably, nanotechnological or neurotechnological devices.1 Cybertechnology can also be used to inflict, or contribute to, severe mental suffering while avoiding the conduit of the physical body, most notably through intimidation, harassment, surveillance, public shaming and defamation, as well as appropriation, deletion or manipulation of information.The delivery of serious threats through anonymous phone calls has long been a widespread method of remotely inflicting fear. With the advent of the internet, State security services in particular have been reported to use cybertechnology, both in their own territory and abroad, for the systematic surveillance of a wide range of individuals and/or for direct interference with their unhindered access to cyber technology.2 Electronic communication services, social media platforms and search engines provide an ideal environment both for the anonymous delivery of targeted threats, sexual harassment and extortion and for the mass dissemination of intimidating, defamatory, degrading, deceptive or discriminatory narratives.Individuals or groups systematically targeted by cybersurveillance and cyberharassment are generally left without any effective means of defence, escape, or self-protection and, at least in this respect, often find themselves in a situation of “powerlessness” comparable to physical custody. Depending on the circumstances, the physical absence and anonymity of the perpetrator may even exacerbate the victim’s emotions of helplessness, loss of control, and vulnerability, not unlike the stress-augmenting effect of blindfolding or hooding during physical torture. Likewise, the generalized shame inflicted by public exposure, defamation and degradation can be just as traumatic as direct humiliation by perpetrators in a closed environment.3 As various studies on cyber-bullying have shown, already harassment in comparatively limited environments can expose targeted individuals to extremely elevated and prolonged levels of anxiety, stress, social isolation and depression, and significantly increases the risk of suicide.4 Arguably, therefore, much more systematic, government-sponsored threats and harassment delivered through cybertechnologies not only entail a situation of effective powerlessness, but may well inflict levels of anxiety, stress, shame and guilt amounting to “severe mental suffering” as required for a finding of torture.5More generally, in order to ensure the adequate implementation of the prohibition of torture and related legal obligations in present and future circumstances, its interpretation should evolve in line with new challenges and capabilities arising in relation to emerging technologies not only in cyberspace, but also in areas such as artificial intelligence, robotics, nanotechnology and neurotechnology, or pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, including so-called “human enhancement”.Al Elmondi, “Next-generation nonsurgical neurotechnology”, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, available at www.darpa.mil/p…/next-generation-nonsurgical-neurotechnology.2 See Human Rights Council resolutions 32/13 and 38/7. See, most notably, the 2013 disclosures by Edward Snowden of the global surveillance activities conducted by the United States National Security Agency and its international partners, see Ewan Macaskill and Gabriel Dance, “NSA files: decoded – what the revelations mean for you”, The Guardian, 1 November 2013.3 Pau Pérez-Sales, “Internet and torture” (forthcoming).4 Ann John and others, “Self-harm, suicidal behaviours, and cyberbullying in children and young people: systematic review”, Journal of Medical Internet Research, vol. 20, No. 4 (2018); Rosario Ortega and others, “The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross-national study”, Aggressive Behavior, vol. 38, No. 5 (September/October 2012).5 Samantha Newbery and Ali Dehghantanha, “A torture-free cyber space: a human right”, 2017.

Reading brain waves was useless until A.I. got involved. Now mind reading has real-world, practical applications.Mike Elgan By Mike ElganContributing Columnist, Computerworld | Apr 7, 2018 3:00 am PDTpsychology mind state brain A Health Blog (CC BY-SA 2.0)Here’s a thought: Mind-reading software is not only ready for commercial use, but it will actually be of practical use in everyday business applications.But wait, you say. That’s creepy, invasive and useless. Read this column, though, and you just might change your mind about that. (And if you do, your gadgets will know.)The missing ingredientFuturists have predicted mind-reading technology for years. And while the detection of brain-wave patterns has been possible for decades, the missing ingredient was the ability to interpret them.But now, thanks to artificial intelligence (A.I.) and machine learning, we can finally know what’s going on inside people’s minds.[ Further reading: A.I. and speech advances bring virtual assistants to work ]The general process is this. Researchers have developed software that takes readouts from people’s brains and matches them to words or pictures. Once mapped, future readouts can be read, interpreted and used for various kinds of mind-revealing or mental-control applications.For example, MIT geniuses have invented a face-mounted device, plus a machine-learning application, that performs real-time speech-to-text conversion — but without the speech part.I’d better explain that.Electrodes on the device intercept neuromuscular signals sent by the brain to the face, and the machine-learning application transcribes them into text. It replaces vocalization with “subvocalization,” or “silent speech.”Researchers use a neural network to match specific neuromuscular signals with specific words. Each person’s physiology is different. The researchers were able to achieve 92% accuracy after 15 minutes of customization and training.The device also provides bone conduction output. That means you could make requests of a virtual assistant and get results audible only to you, all without the knowledge of people sitting right in front of you.This is a surprising use for mind-reading technology, because it doesn’t “read” thoughts in general, only “instructions” sent from the brain to the face to speak (even if actual speaking doesn’t audibly or visually occur).Also, it merely takes an existing behavior — spoken and audible interaction with a virtual assistant — and makes it silent and invisible, thereby increasing the range of situations where one could use a virtual assistant.Of course, the device itself looks ridiculous. Nobody’s going to wear this in public. What’s important about this research is its proof that subvocalization can be a computer interface.Scientists at the University of California, San Francisco, have created a mind-reading device that also turns mental activity into text with better than 90% accuracy. Instead of understanding the words a person is subvocalizing, it can detect what that person is hearing, with brain activity alone.The science was a bit gruesome.The researchers took advantage of a kind of epilepsy treatment whereby electrodes are implanted directly on the surface of the brain. Scientists used those electrodes for a second purpose, which was to monitor brain waves in the auditory cortex. They took that data and used algorithms to decode the specific speech sounds as they were being heard by the subject.It’s the first step toward creating an externally worn gadget that can be used to convert thoughts to text — either “perceived” or “produced” speech.Carnegie Mellon University research has found ways to read “complex thoughts“ based on brain scans, and output text accordingly. The university’s study demonstrated that complex thinking could enable its A.I. to predict the next “sentence” in the thought process.Even Facebook has a mind-reading project in the works. The social networking company’s secretive Building 8 division is working on a way for users to send Facebook Messenger messages using thoughts alone.Microsoft, ever the user-interface company, was granted patents last year for interfaces that use brain activity to “change the state of a computer or applications.”One example is to turn down the volume of music based on the mental activity of being irritated by loud noise. It could be used for any number of Microsoft-related products, from enhancing the accuracy of a mouse to enabling next-level applications in the company’s HoloLens mixed-reality system.Mind-reading research is also making gains in reading visuals, not just words.A recent University of Toronto Scarborough study was able to roughly re-create faces shown to subjects based on their brain activity.Thirteen subjects were shown 140 faces. Electroencephalogram (EEG) readouts were processed by an A.I. algorithm developed by the scientists, and produced blurry but recognizable copies of what the subjects were shown.Researchers are certain they’ll soon be able to re-create faces from memory alone, a feat that has obvious law-enforcement applications.Japanese researchers at the University of Kyoto are working on a neural network system that performs in a similar way to the University of Toronto research. Subjects are shown pictures, then functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans plus A.I. can estimate what those pictures looked like based on blood flow to the brain.Researchers at Purdue University are also reading minds using A.I. and fMRI machines. They showed subjects videos and used A.I. to train their software to predict brain activity in the visual cortex. Over time, they could figure out what the person was looking at based on brain activity alone.Mind-reading apps are also showing up in other contexts.A startup called Neurable is working on a sci-fi virtual-reality (VR) video game called Awakening, in which you pick up objects and even throw them with thoughts alone. The game comes with an electrode headband that connects to an HTC Vive VR headset.As with the MIT technology, Neurable’s game doesn’t read “thoughts,” but instead uses neural activity as commands or instructions.A participant in HTC’s Vive X accelerator program, called Looxid Labs, is building a mobile VR headset with built-in emotion-detection technology that uses both eye tracking and brainwave monitoring.The company has also developed attachments for the HTC Vive that do the same thing. Developer kits are scheduled for release this summer.On a more practical level, car giant Nissan revealed its IMx KURO concept car, complete with an EEG headset, at the 2018 Geneva Motor Show.The system uses monitored brainwaves to speed up the reaction of the car. For example, when it detects that the driver intends to apply the brakes, it starts braking even before the driver stomps on the brakes. Nissan claims that reaction times can be sped up by as much as half a second.

DMDII to become MxD, stand independent from UI LABS

DMDII to become MxD, stand independent from UI LABS Feb 28, 2019 Fueled by the recent $10 million in funding from the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), the Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute (DMDII) will soon operate as an independent organization and rebrand itself as MxD. The new name stands for “Manufacturing times Digital”Continue reading “DMDII to become MxD, stand independent from UI LABS”

The Hoffman Report: The Investigation into the American Psychological Association (APA) | Psych Central Professional

Hoffman Report is the informal name for the 2015 investigation into the American Psychological Association’s (APA) practices regarding its relaxing of ethical standards for psychologists involved in torture interrogations. The full name for the report is, Independent Review Relating to APA Ethics Guidelines, National Security Interrogations, and Torture. It was authored by attorneys David Hoffman,Continue reading “The Hoffman Report: The Investigation into the American Psychological Association (APA) | Psych Central Professional”

HOME | C60 Nanoscale Impact

These are examples of nano carbons that assemble in the system~ designed to integrate on a cellular -DNA -RNA and Genetic and Mitochondrial levels~a disruptor on a physiological levels and the capacity to offset any signals that will trigger an immune response and can be activated with freq to accelerate its network or the capacityContinue reading “HOME | C60 Nanoscale Impact”

BIOLOGICAL (Human Body- tissues, cells, organs, skin, fluids, DMA, RNA, etc) ) EFFECTS OF TERAHERTZ (THZ) RADIATION ‪http://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/a5089d_721ea3c553c94f40852820d6e355598c.pdf‬ Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation Abstract Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used in a host of medical, military, and security applications. For example, THz systems are now being tested at international airports for security screening purposes, at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis, and at border patrol checkpoints for identification of concealed explosives, drugs, and weapons. Recent advances in THz have regarding the with this . Biological effects studies are a valuable type of basic science research because they serve to enhance our fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern THz interactions with . Such studies are also important because they often times lay the foundation for the development of future applications. In addition, from a practical standpoint, THz is also for the safe use of THz . Given the importance and timeliness of THz bioeffects data, the purpose of this review is twofold. First, to provide readers with a common reference, which contains the necessary background concepts in biophysics and THz technology, that are required to both conduct and evaluate THz biological research. Second, to provide a critical review of the scientific literature. Keywords Terahertz . THz . Thermal effects . Microarray . Cellular effects . Gene expression . Invited review . Biological effects . Review article . Radiation CONTENTS 1.Introduction …………………………………….. 2. Background: composition and function of biological structures ……………………………. 3. Terahertz interactions with biological materials 3.1. Fundamental principles 3.2. Biological origin of tissue absorption properties 3.3. Thermal response of tissue. G. J. Wilmink (*) : J. E. Grundt 711th Human Performance Wing, Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Air Force Research 4. Thermal effects in biological materials 4.1. Organisms and tissues 4.2. Mammalian cells 4.3. Cellular organelles 4.4. Biological macromolecules 4.5. Microthermal effects 5. Terahertz biological effects research 5.1. Sources 5.2. Detectors 5.3. Equipment used for controlled exposures and dosimetry 5.4. General challenges and considerations 6. Methodology and study-by-study analysis of the THz bioeffects literature 6.1. Organism level studies 6.1.1. Vertebrates 6.1.2. Insects 6.1.3. Plants 6.2. Excised tissues. applications 1 stimulated renewed interest biological effects associated frequency range biological systems biological effects research necessary accurate health hazard evaluation, development of empirically-based safety standards, systems Comment [i]: carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have emerged as extraordinary low-dimensional systems with a variety of outstanding electronic and photonic properties, 1 − 7 including those ideally suited for terahertz THz) devices 6.3. Mammalian cells 6.4. Cellular organelles: lipid membranes 6.5. Biological macromolecules 7. Summary and future prospects Introduction energy of THz is level type of because of below the from eVs). Thus, are. This fundamental distinction is important vastly free to other free in that are is that only to cause direct. These direct effects are they result in the can cause In contrast,.terahertz portion electromagnetic does not but it can cause. For many years, data has been scarce at THz frequencies because suitable sources were not widely available. However, a recent surge in research activity has resulted in the development of many new types of sources and components. These new THz technologies have bridged the proverbial “THz Gap,” and are increasingly being integrated into a host of practical medical, military, and security applications. For instance, THz imaging and Electromagnetic Spectrum Frequency (Hz) Spectral bands ‪10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 10 9 10 10 11 10 12 10 13 10 14 10 15 10 16 10 17 10 18 10 19 10 20 10 21‬ Radio waves -wave THz IR VIS UV X- rays – rays Frequency (THz): Wavelength ( m): Wavenumber (cm-1): Period (picoseconds): Photon energy (meV): Temperature (K): h c/ k = 1/ 0.1 3000 3.3 10.0 0.4 1.0 300 33.4 1.0 4.1 47.8 10.0 30 334.0 0.1 41.0 478.0 from from bulk frequency spectrum region occupies located. The THz region is between 21 The (THz) a large of the (EM) that is the (IR) and (MW) typically defined to include the frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 THz, where 1 THz equals 1012 Hz. In terms of other frequently used units, this range corresponds to the following: wavelength 1 (303000 m); wavenumber k (3.3334 cm-1); period t (0.110 picoseconds), temperature T (4.8478 K), and photon energy E (0.441 milli-electron volts) (Fig. 1). It is important to note that the infrared photons several orders magnitude energy required to ionize,or remove,valence electrons biological molecules typically, several “T-rays” classified non-ionizing radiation nonionizing and ionizing radiation generate different effects in biological structures. Perhaps,the most noteworthy difference ionizing radiation particles carry o water and to enough energy ionization effects t biomolecules.particularly harmful biological structures formation of highly reactive radicals nonionizing secondary or indirect damage biomolecules radiation generate radicals biological structures, thermal effects indistinguishable effects observed heating because microwave regions as a which T = h /kB 4.8 ‪Fig. 1 The Terahertz (THz) band of the electromagnetic spectrum.‬ sensing techniques are presently used at major airports for security screening purposes [1, 2], at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis [38], and at border patrol checkpoints for identification of concealed explosives, drugs, and weapons [911]. Widespread deployment of new THz applications has prompted increased scientific interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. In recent years, many timely investigations have been performed to investigate the possible biological effects associated with THz radiation [1222]. Unfortunately, however, a comprehensive review has not yet appeared in the literature which both discusses the fundamental interaction mechanisms, and also critically reviews the bioeffects studies that have been conducted to date. Thus, the purpose of this review is twofold. First, to provide readers with a common reference, which contains the necessary background concepts in biophysics and THz technology that are required to both conduct and evaluate THz biological research. Second, to provide a review and analysis of the studies reported in the literature on the topic of THz bioeffects. This review is divided into seven sections. The first section provides a general introduction to the THz spectral band. The the of and an of the irradiation of materials. The fourth section summarizes the primary thermal effects that are observed in biological materials at an organism, tissue, cellular, organelle, and molecular level. The concepts described in this section are valuable because they provide the foundation to understand THz-induced effects at all levels of biological organization. In addition, they give the reader the tools to determine whether the effects observed in THz reports can be fully attributable to the temperature rise generated during exposure. The fifth section surveys the major types of THz sources, detectors, and equipment that are used in biological research. This section also addresses the common challenges and considerations that investigators face in this field. Following the description of THz technologies, the sixth section then describes our methodology to survey the literature. This section provides a comprehensive review and “study-by-study” analysis of the THz bioeffects reports that appear in the literature. The review concludes with a summary section that addresses challenges and future opportunities in this field. 2 Background: composition and function of biological structures THz-induced biological effects are influenced by two general factors: the THz exposure (i.e., etc.) and the of the . This section provides background on the chemical composition and function of skin, the. It also discusses energy deposition processes and temperature transients that result from THz of THz with and 3 second section describes composition function biological structures: skin tissue, mammalian cells,organelles, biological macromolecules. The third section provides fundamental mechanisms governing interaction radiation biological materials overview the parameters frequency, power,exposure duration, composition and/or properties biological target largest and primary biological target for THz radiation. Please note, the is also an an to properties. 2.1 and Skin of two (Fig. 2a). The skin and cell for THz in this we have not . This section also serves to provide the necessary foundation that is required to understand the biological origin of tissue optical important for this cells are type of skin cell. The of a toasaquamousepithelial a biological target effort details make section more concise tissue . The main function of the epidermis is is by 95% of all to and to provide a physical barrier that not only protects against water loss, but also prevents harmful external agents from entering. This protective barrier epithelial tissue consists of five distinct layers or strata: (sc), (sl), (sg), (ss), and (sb) (Fig. 2a). as they the to the include: increases in keratin production, decreases in water content, decreases in cellular metabolism, loss of nuclei and organelles, and cellular flattening. a b Plasma membrane Nucleus Cytosol Inorganic ions RNA H2O Ribosome DNA Cytoskeleton Mitochondria Endoplasmic reticulum O2 ATP Golgi apparatus Lysosome H+. In brief, these changes cornea 4 radiation; however,provided Human skin: structure chemical composition consists primary layers: an outer epidermis and an underlying dermis epidermis consists of water, keratin proteins, melanin granules,several types, including langerhans, melanocytes, keratinocytes keratinization achieved keratinocytes.in the Roughly keratinocytes,thus,they are the most common Keratinocytes are genetically programmed undergo cellular differentiation process known as keratinization. process results formation layered barrier referred stratified squamous tissue. S stratum corneum lucidum Keratinocytes granulosum spinosum basale undergo several phenotypic changes progress from inner outer stratum Protein Extracellular matrix Fig. 2 (ab). a. Skin anatomy. Histological cross section of porcine skin tissue (Hematoxylin and Eosin stain at 40X magnification). Epidermis (epi), basement membrane (bm), dermis (d). Legend for magnification: stratum corneum (sc), stratum lucidum (sl), stratum granulosum (sg), stratum spinosum (ss), and stratum basale (sb) b. Cellular chemistry and morphology. Image created with Ingenuity IPA software. Although keratinocytes in the sb layer are devoid of keratin, they do have high concentrations of melanin, a pigment responsible for skin (i.e., Fitzpatrick skin type). Melanin granules are produced by melanocytes, and they are transferred to keratinocytes via cytocrine secretion mechanisms. To date, studies have not been performed to characterize the optical properties of melanin at THz frequencies; however, comparable studies have been conducted at optical frequencies. These studies report that the absorption coefficient (a) of melanin decreases with wavelength, and can be approximated as: a (cm-1) = 1.70×1012 ×1-3.48 (nanometers, nm) [23]. Assuming this trend continues into the THz region, melanin absorption is probably weak at THz frequencies (i.e., a 10-4 cm-1). In addition to contributing to skin color, the sb layer also The BM is the and in of the the to few of pattern color. It and have cassists primarily formation basement membrane (BM).layer that of type IV .Iseparates epidermis dermis. consists collagen, laminin,entactin, sulfated proteoglycans nterestingly, date,studies characterized the optical properties these biomolecules frequencies [24]. Such information would likely improve the accuracy of computational models that are currently used to predict THz-tissue interactions. Immediately below the epidermis lies the dermis. The dermis provides skin with shape and structural integrity, and it ranges in thickness across the human body between 0.3 and 4 millimeters (Fig. 2a). The dermis consists of dermal fibroblasts that are anchored in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM consists of fibrillar collagen embedded in a ground substance material. It is interesting to note that healthy fibrillar collagen exhibits a characteristic with a of ~60 nm, this The significance of this feature will be described in greater detail in Section 4.1. is of and that their own [25]. Due to this property, large volumes of water typically reside in the at THz banding thermally damaged c gylcosaminoglycans ground substance of the dermis. This is the THz. at THz is to note , thus, (see collagen loses Ground substance primarily comprised Sections 3.1-3.3). 2.2 Structure and chemical composition of mammalian cells Cells in the human body come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes; however, virtually all cells (Fig. 2b). First, all cells are enclosed by an outer protective barrier known as the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane provides a selective barrier between intracellular contents and extracellular fluids. The is composed of a periodicity water,collagen,are whereas signature banding pattern. elastin,proteoglycans,(GAGs). GAGs hydrophilic molecules volume sequester water volumes roughly 1000 times property important because water primary chromophore frequencies presence strongly governs where energy deposited share certain characteristics plasma membrane phospholipid bilayer,which contains integral proteins Comment [i]: Carbon C 60 would then bind with these carbons and make a person even more sensitive to a terra hertz hit Comment [i]:are are Comment [i]:that for and small digesting Lysosomes compartments responsible damaged macromolecules,which are collected during phagocytosis autophagy, endocytosis,processes Mitochondria are a of that are all second the cell,’ the of in the of is to of class cytoplasmic organelles present in nearly cells. Nicknamed powerhouse mitochondria main function generate chemical energy adenosine form triphosphate (ATP).and . The phospholipid bilayer is comprised of two elements: polar are the outer exact of on the cell type, and ratio of cholesterol composition,membranes hydrophilic surface,and in the tails are in the interior of. The degree of saturation of the carbon-carbon hydrocarbon which bonds in the hydrocarbon tails governs the structure and order of the bilayer, where saturated hydrocarbons chains are more restricted and unsaturated chains are more fluid [26]. Overall, the properties and present bilayer interior heads, which oriented towards thermal sensitivity plasma depend membrane saturated versus 27]. Two distinct regions exist inside the plasma membrane of all cells: and cytoplasm (Fig. 2b). The cytosol makes upthe largest volume of cells, and it is primarily composed of and ions (i.e.,unsaturated hydrocarbons roles in a thick and ), and cytoskeleton filaments.to cells, and they also play key. The is [27]. that that are cytosol water,organic inorganic sodium,potassium, magnesium,calcium,phosphate, chloride Cytoskeleton filaments provide structural support intracellular transport and (pH ~7.17.2) liquid that cellular division cytoplasm alkaline contains all organelles. Organelles are vital in specialized membrane-bound compartments provide cellular functions.

docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/a5089d_721ea3c553c94f40852820d6e355598c.pdf

BIOLOGICAL (Human Body) EFFECTS OF TERAHERTZ (THZ) RADIATION http://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/a5089d_721ea3c553c94f40852820d6e355598c.pdf Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation Abstract Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used in a host of medical, military, and security applications. For example, THz systems are now being tested at international airports for security screening purposes, at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis, and at border patrol checkpoints for identification of concealed explosives, drugs, and weapons. Recent advances in THz have regarding the with this . Biological effects studies are a valuable type of basic science research because they serve to enhance our fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern THz interactions with . Such studies are also important because they often times lay the foundation for the development of future applications. In addition, from a practical standpoint, THz is also for the and for the safe use of THz . Given the importance and timeliness of THz bioeffects data, the purpose of this review is twofold. First, to provide readers with a common reference, which contains the necessary background concepts in biophysics and THz technology, that are required to both conduct and evaluate THz biological research. Second, to provide a critical review of the scientific literature. Keywords Terahertz . THz . Thermal effects . Microarray . Cellular effects . Gene expression . Invited review . Biological effects . Review article . Radiation CONTENTS 1.Introduction …………………………………….. 2. Background: composition and function of biological structures ……………………………. 3. Terahertz interactions with biological materials 3.1. Fundamental principles 3.2. Biological origin of tissue absorption properties 3.3. Thermal response of tissue. G. J. Wilmink (*) : J. E. Grundt 711th Human Performance Wing, Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Air Force Research 4. Thermal effects in biological materials 4.1. Organisms and tissues 4.2. Mammalian cells 4.3. Cellular organelles 4.4. Biological macromolecules 4.5. Microthermal effects 5. Terahertz biological effects research 5.1. Sources 5.2. Detectors 5.3. Equipment used for controlled exposures and dosimetry 5.4. General challenges and considerations 6. Methodology and study-by-study analysis of the THz bioeffects literature 6.1. Organism level studies 6.1.1. Vertebrates 6.1.2. Insects 6.1.3. Plants 6.2. Excised tissues. applications 1 stimulated renewed interest biological effects associated frequency range biological systems biological effects research necessary accurate health hazard evaluation, development of empirically-based safety standards, systems Comment [i]: carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have emerged as extraordinary low-dimensional systems with a variety of outstanding electronic and photonic properties, 1 − 7 including those ideally suited for terahertz (THz) devices 6.3. Mammalian cells 6.4. Cellular organelles: lipid membranes 6.5. Biological macromolecules 7. Summary and future prospects Introduction energy of THz is level type of because of below the from eVs). Thus, are . This fundamental distinction is important vastly free to other free in that are is that only to cause direct These direct effects are they result in the can cause In contrast, , . terahertz portion electromagnetic does not but it can cause . For many years, data has been scarce at THz frequencies because suitable sources were not widely available. However, a recent surge in research activity has resulted in the development of many new types of sources and components. These new THz technologies have bridged the proverbial “THz Gap,” and are increasingly being integrated into a host of practical medical, military, and security applications. For instance, THz imaging and Electromagnetic Spectrum Frequency (Hz) Spectral bands 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 10 9 10 10 11 10 12 10 13 10 14 10 15 10 16 10 17 10 18 10 19 10 20 10 21 Radio waves -wave THz IR VIS UV X- rays – rays Frequency (THz): Wavelength ( m): Wavenumber (cm-1): Period (picoseconds): Photon energy (meV): Temperature (K): h c/ k = 1/ 0.1 3000 3.3 10.0 0.4 1.0 300 33.4 1.0 4.1 47.8 10.0 30 334.0 0.1 41.0 478.0 from from bulk frequency spectrum region occupies located . The THz region is between 2 1 The (THz) a large of the (EM) that is the (IR) and (MW) typically defined to include the frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 THz, where 1 THz equals 1012 Hz. In terms of other frequently used units, this range corresponds to the following: wavelength 1 (303000 m); wavenumber k (3.3334 cm-1); period t (0.110 picoseconds), temperature T (4.8478 K), and photon energy E (0.441 milli-electron volts) (Fig. 1). It is important to note that the infrared photons several orders magnitude energy required to ionize, or remove, valence electrons biological molecules (typically, several “T-rays” classified non-ionizing radiation nonionizing a nd ionizing radiation generate different effects in biological s tructures. Perhaps, the most noteworthy difference ionizing radiation particles carry o water and to enough energy ionization effects t biomolecules. particularly harmful biological structures formation of highly r eactive radicals nonionizing secondary or indirect damage biomolecules radiation generate radicals biological structures, thermal effects indistinguishable effects observed heating because microwave regions as a which T = h /kB 4.8 Fig. 1 The Terahertz (THz) band of the electromagnetic spectrum. sensing techniques are presently used at major airports for security screening purposes [1, 2], at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis [38], and at border patrol checkpoints for identification of concealed explosives, drugs, and weapons [911]. Widespread deployment of new THz applications has prompted increased scientific interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. In recent years, many timely investigations have been performed to investigate the possible biological effects associated with THz radiation [1222]. Unfortunately, however, a comprehensive review has not yet appeared in the literature which both discusses the fundamental interaction mechanisms, and also critically reviews the bioeffects studies that have been conducted to date. Thus, the purpose of this review is twofold. First, to provide readers with a common reference, which contains the necessary background concepts in biophysics and THz technology that are required to both conduct and evaluate THz biological research. Second, to provide a review and analysis of the studies reported in the literature on the topic of THz bioeffects. This review is divided into seven sections. The first section provides a general introduction to the THz spectral band. The the of and an of the irradiation of materials. The fourth section summarizes the primary thermal effects that are observed in biological materials at an organism, tissue, cellular, organelle, and molecular level. The concepts described in this section are valuable because they provide the foundation to understand THz-induced effects at all levels of biological organization. In addition, they give the reader the tools to determine whether the effects observed in THz reports can be fully attributable to the temperature rise generated during exposure. The fifth section surveys the major types of THz sources, detectors, and equipment that are used in biological research. This section also addresses the common challenges and considerations that investigators face in this field. Following the description of THz technologies, the sixth section then describes our methodology to survey the literature. This section provides a comprehensive review and “study-by-study” analysis of the THz bioeffects reports that appear in the literature. The review concludes with a summary section that addresses challenges and future opportunities in this field. 2 Background: composition and function of biological structures THz-induced biological effects are influenced by two general factors: the THz exposure (i.e., etc.) and the of the . This section provides background on the chemical composition and function of skin, the . It also discusses energy deposition processes and temperature transients that result from THz of THz with and 3 second section describes composition function biological structures: skin tissue, mammalian cells, organelles, biological macromolecules. The third section provides fundamental mechanisms governing interaction radiation biological materials overview the parameters frequency, power, exposure duration, composition and/or properties biological target largest and primary biological target for THz radiation. Please note, the is also an an to properties. 2.1 and Skin of two (Fig. 2a). The and cell for THz in this we have not . This section also serves to provide the necessary foundation that is required to understand the biological origin of tissue optical important for this cells are type of skin cell. The of a toasaquamousepithelial a biological target effort details make section more concise tissue . The main function of the epidermis is is by 95% of all to and to provide a physical barrier that not only protects against water loss, but also prevents harmful external agents from entering. This protective barrier epithelial tissue consists of five distinct layers or strata: (sc), (sl), (sg), (ss), and (sb) (Fig. 2a). as they the to the include: increases in keratin production, decreases in water content, decreases in cellular metabolism, loss of nuclei and organelles, and cellular flattening. a b Plasma membrane Nucleus Cytosol Inorganic ions RNA H2O Ribosome DNA Cytoskeleton Mitochondria Endoplasmic reticulum O2 ATP Golgi apparatus Lysosome H+ . In brief, these changes cornea 4 radiation; however, provided Human skin: structure chemical composition consists primary layers: an outer epidermis and an underlying dermis epidermis consists of water, keratin proteins, melanin granules, several types, including langerhans, melanocytes, keratinocytes keratinization achieved keratinocytes. in the Roughly keratinocytes, thus, they are the most common Keratinocytes are genetically programmed undergo cellular differentiation process known as keratinization. process results formation layered barrier referred stratified squamous tissue. S stratum corneum lucidum Keratinocytes granulosum spinosum basale undergo several phenotypic changes progress from inner outer stratum Protein Extracellular matrix Fig. 2 (ab). a. Skin anatomy. Histological cross section of porcine skin tissue (Hematoxylin and Eosin stain at 40X magnification). Epidermis (epi), basement membrane (bm), dermis (d). Legend for magnification: stratum corneum (sc), stratum lucidum (sl), stratum granulosum (sg), stratum spinosum (ss), and stratum basale (sb) b. Cellular chemistry and morphology. Image created with Ingenuity IPA software. Although keratinocytes in the sb layer are devoid of keratin, they do have high concentrations of melanin, a pigment responsible for skin (i.e., Fitzpatrick skin type). Melanin granules are produced by melanocytes, and they are transferred to keratinocytes via cytocrine secretion mechanisms. To date, studies have not been performed to characterize the optical properties of melanin at THz frequencies; however, comparable studies have been conducted at optical frequencies. These studies report that the absorption coefficient (a) of melanin decreases with wavelength, and can be approximated as: a (cm-1) = 1.70×1012 ×1-3.48 (nanometers, nm) [23]. Assuming this trend continues into the THz region, melanin absorption is probably weak at THz frequencies (i.e., a 10-4 cm-1). In addition to contributing to skin color, the sb layer also The BM is the and in of the the to few of pattern 5 color It and have c assists primarily formation basement membrane (BM). layer that of type IV .I separates epidermis dermis. consists collagen, laminin, entactin, sulfated proteoglycans nterestingly, date, studies haracterized the optical properties these biomolecules frequencies [24]. Such information would likely improve the accuracy of computational models that are currently used to predict THz-tissue interactions. Immediately below the epidermis lies the dermis. The dermis provides skin with shape and structural integrity, and it ranges in thickness across the human body between 0.3 and 4 millimeters (Fig. 2a). The dermis consists of dermal fibroblasts that are anchored in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM consists of fibrillar collagen embedded in a ground substance material. It is interesting to note that healthy fibrillar collagen exhibits a characteristic with a of ~60 nm, this The significance of this feature will be described in greater detail in Section 4.1. is of and that their own [25]. Due to this property, large volumes of water typically reside in the at THz banding thermally damaged c gylcosaminoglycans ground substance of the dermis. This is the its THz is at THz is to note , thus, (see ollagen loses Ground substance primarily comprised Sections 3.1-3.3). 2.2 Structure and chemical composition of mammalian cells Cells in the human body come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes; however, virtually all cells (Fig. 2b). First, all cells are enclosed by an outer protective barrier known as the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane provides a selective barrier between intracellular contents and extracellular fluids. The is composed of a periodicity water, collagen, are whereas signature banding pattern. elastin, proteoglycans, (GAGs). GAGs hydrophilic molecules volume sequester water volumes roughly 1000 times property important because water primary chromophore frequencies presence strongly governs where energy deposited share certain characteristics plasma membrane phospholipid bilayer, which contains integral proteins Comment [i]: Carbon C 60 would then bind with these carbons and make a person even more sensitive to a terra hertz hit Comment [i]: are are Comment [i]: that for and small digesting Lysosomes compartments responsible damaged macromolecules, which are collected during phagocytosis autophagy, endocytosis, processes Mitochondria are a of that are all second `the the cell,’ the of in the of is to of class cytoplasmic organelles present in nearly cells. Nicknamed powerhouse mitochondria main function generate chemical energy adenosine form triphosphate (ATP). and . The phospholipid bilayer is comprised of two elements: polar are the outer exact of on the cell type, and ratio of cholesterol composition, membranes 6 hydrophilic surface, and in the tails are in the interior of . The degree of saturation of the carbon-carbon hydrocarbon which bonds in the hydrocarbon tails governs the structure and order of the bilayer, where saturated hydrocarbons chains are more restricted and unsaturated chains are more fluid [26]. Overall, the properties and present bilayer interior heads, which oriented towards thermal sensitivity plasma depend membrane saturated versus [27]. Two distinct regions exist inside the plasma membrane of all cells: and cytoplasm (Fig. 2b). The cytosol makes up the largest volume of cells, and it is primarily composed of and ions (i.e., unsaturated hydrocarbons roles in a thick and ), and cytoskeleton filaments. to cells, and they also play key . The is [27]. that that are cytosol water, organic inorganic sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, chloride Cytoskeleton filaments provide structural support intracellular transport and (pH ~7.17.2) liquid that cellular division cytoplasm alkaline contains all organelles Organelles are vital in specialized membrane-bound compartments provide cellular functions. The primary organelles present virtually all cells are and the Golgi lysosomes, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, complex (Fig. 2b). Lysosomes are small compartments that are responsible for digesting damaged macromolecules, which are collected during autophagy, endocytosis, and phagocytosis processes. Digestion is performed within lysosomes by lipases, proteases, and other pH-sensitive hydrolase enzymes [28]. use to maintain their acidic (pH<4.8) [26]. In addition to their Lysosomes membrane waste disposal functions, lysosomes also assist in the [29] (Fig. 2b). and of are a in all cells. hydrogen proton pumps highly internal environment repair `the is to sealing damaged plasma membranes Mitochondria cytoplasmic organelles present nearly Nicknamed powerhouse function mitochondria generate c hemical energy adenosine triphosphate (ATP). mitochondria, aerobic respiration mechanisms, Kreb's cycle and oxidation phosphorylation, mediate conversion biochemical energy from nutrients oxygen addition to producing mitochondria function transient storage (Ca+2), a cation required cellular functions, transduction, apoptosis, cellular proliferation class of . Calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix is driven by a steep electrochemical proton gradient provided by the mitochondrial membrane potential (m) equal to -100 to 220 mV [30]. Interestingly, maintenance of a low m is directly linked to the formation and generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) [31]. In the such as the that are of the cell,' the main of the into the form of ATP. In ATP, of and in the form of second also as a site for calcium for many such as signal Furthermore, data at m`s that ROS than 140 mV [30]. recent and suggest play roles in ATP and redox (Fig. 2b). The (ER) and production i ncreases exponentially greater Overall, mitochondria critical production, cellular metabolism, signal transduction, endoplasmic reticulum Comment [i]: The (ER) and the are the final two that are cells The of the ER is to and and o the The of the ER is to and and o the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex major cytoplasmic organelles present in most primary function synthesize deliver proteins, nascent lipids, steroids t Golgi complex primary function synthesize deliver nascent proteins, lipids, steroids t Golgi complex the Golgi Golgi . Once delivered to the golgi complex, these macromolecules are then packaged and delivered to their final destination the cell (Fig. 2b). complex nucleus organelle. from THz are the final two largest contains perhaps nucleus of the . Therefore, knowledge of the fundamental principles governing these processes is necessary to understand the biological effects associated with THz irradiation. This section provides the following: an overview of the principles governing the interaction and propagation of THz radiation in biological materials (Section 3.1): an examination of the biological origins of absorption and scattering phenomenon (Section 3.2); and a discussion on energy deposition, temperature transients, and thermal responses of biological materials (Section 3.3).1080 3.1 of When THz photons interact with a material, a fraction of the are at the , and the remaining photons are transmitted into the material. Figure 3a is a graphical representation of an incident THz interactions with biological materials. a. Image illustrating THz beam attenuation in biological materials. major majority cytoplasmic organelles genetic is and beam and can that material 7 are present of the ER is to and and steroids to the in most cells . The primary function synthesize The is the and The (i.e., DNA and gene the most of a cell's to as the cell's to 3 The (i.e., the DNA [26] (Fig. 2b). deliver RNA), and it is .' The nascent with proteins, sometimes lipids, complex referred within important `control center primary of the a site for and functions nucleus are to cellular regulate cellular expression, provide mRNA transcription, facilitate replication Terahertz interactions biological materials interaction of THz by two spot size, e ); and (ii) the (i.e., index of . As a radiation biological with : (i) THz e materials influenced primary elements xposure parameters frequency, xposure duration, irradiance, profile properties) composition and properties both of these of and of biological materials refraction, absorption properties, scattering result, elements impact propagation, spatial distribution energy, thermal effects resulting irradiation biological materials Fundamental principles THz-material interactions photons reflected material boundary Comment [i]: Factors that impact the terrahertz beams– Two directly the of the to (i) the of 1 THz and (ii) the of n contribute amount specular reflectance loses at a air (n1) and the (n2 of factors material interface: angle incidence beam; incoming index refraction mismatch between sample material 8 THz wave being reflected and transmitted into skin. Assuming a unit incident irradiance o (Wm-2), the light transmitted into the tissue can be defined as: T=1 – Rs, where T and Rs represent the ratio of transmitted and specular reflected photons, respectively. (n2). The relationship between these entities can be computed using Snell's Law, n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2, where 1 is the angle of incidence in air (n1 1), and 2 is the angle of refraction in the material (n2). a Incident THz wave ( o) b 1r Angle of refraction ( ) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Angle of incidence ( ) 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 c 1.0 0.8 0.6 Rs 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Tissue index of refraction (n2) 1.3 43.4 231 1.4 46.7 214 1.5 1.6 Specular reflection (Rs) 2 Transmitted (T) ( z) 0.1 3.3 0.2 6.7 0.3 10.0 Frequency (THz) Frequency (cm-1) Wavelength (μm) 1.1 Two factors directly c ontribute to the amount of specular reflectance loses at a material interface: (i) the angle of incidence 1 of the incoming THz beam; and (ii) the index of refraction n mismatch between air (n1) and the sample material 1.2 40.0 250 13.3 16.7 750 600 20.0 23.3 26.7 30.0 500 428 375 333 33.4 36.7 300 273 50.0 53.4 200 187 3000 1500 1000 d Index of 4.0 refraction 3.0 (n) 2.0 Water and Skin Water: Wilmink et al. (2011) Water: Jepsen et al. (2007) Water: Nazarov et al. (2010) Skin: Wilmink et al. (2011) 4.0 3.0 2.0 40 30 20 10 0 400 300 200 100 0 300 200 100 0 e 40 30 Specular reflection 20 losses (%) 10 0 f 400 Absorption 300 coefficient 200 μa 100 0 300 Optical Penetration 200 Depth 100 0 g Fig. 3 (ag) THz interactions with biological materials. a. Image illustrating THz beam attenuation in biological materials. bc. Graphical representations illustrating the relationship between angle of incidence, angle of refraction, tissue index of refraction, and magnitude of specular reflection. dg. Real index of refraction (n), specular reflection loses (Rs), absorption coefficient (a). and optical penetration depth (). Water spectra: Wilmink et al. [182], blue line; Jepsen et al. [41], red line; Nazarov et al. [183]; green line. Skin spectra: Wilmink et al. [182], black line. J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves (2011) 32:1074 9 1122 Neglecting polarization, approximated using the the of can be 1 tan2 ðq1 À q2 Þ sin2 ðq1 À q 2 Þ ; ð1Þ þ 2 Rs 1⁄4 2 tan2 ðq1 þ q2 Þ sin ðq1 þ q 2 Þ Figure 3b is plot of 1 versus the Fresnel relation: of Rs the to: n1Àn22;ð2ÞRs1⁄4n1þn2Figure3cisagraphical representation that illustrates the relationship between a material’s index of refraction and the magnitude of Rs. The data that in a of in in Rs. Figure 3d contains published data for the index of of and skin at THz frequencies [32 43]. The data shows that water’s index ranges 3.5 at 0.1 THz to 2.0 at 1.6 THz, magnitude of Rs. The data that the for than 60 to the illustrate exponentially of incidence Assuming angle of is Eq. 1 incidence magnitude normal magnitude material, increases 10 specular reflectance angles greater degrees. reduces clearly show material’s index increases appreciable increases refraction water porcine while skin’s from refraction result Comment [i]: the hijacking of people with hydrogen through terrahertz frequencies ~ the hydrogen has a network of a “collective manner” which means it will amplify the TZ freq hit 11 accounting for Rs, the transmission T of THz photons can then be determined using Beer-Lambert’s law: 6z 1⁄4 eðÀma zÞ ; ð3Þ T1⁄4 6o where o is the incidence irradiance (Wm-2), z is the irradiance (Wm-2) after a path index ranges from 2.2 at 0.1 THz to 2.0 at 1.6 THz. Corresponding Rs values are provided in Fig. 3e. The data show that only 70 to 90% of the THz is into . the airtissue leads to losses. After incidence irradiance transmitted materials Clearly, is of a is absorption a per to as the mean depth (m). This value is equal to 1/e, or to the traveling is through length material, coefficient material. absorption coefficient (cm-1) defined probability photon absorbed infinitesimal length reciprocal referred absorption length optical penetration irradiance corresponds where roughly incidence irradiance. addition absorption, scattering properties of materials impact spatial distribution deposited photons. defined refractive length mammalian z in the The that a . The or the to the depth coefficient s (cm-1) is unit path in is particularly molecules, large 51]. In occur at 1.5 THz [49- also interface the In and a is the of the as the unit path 37% of the the of can also Analogous to the absorption coefficient, the scattering as the of per . arises from index of the cells. Photons scatter most strongly by structures whose size matches the incident wavelength. Thus, in the and of than most wavelengths probability . Due to this to be an absorption-dominated case. 3.2 Biological origin and absorption properties of skin at THz frequencies feature, THz tissue interactions are Many and [4448]. (i.e., DNA, to tissue but most data at THz that water is the chief tissue many that to its . One such property is the ability with THz of water molecules to readily engage in both inter- and intra- molecular hydrogen bonding with neighboring molecules. As a result of these interactions, water molecules bond that in a of this of water are quite . Interestingly, the are the at a of 5.6 THz [4951]. In addition, due to the slow relaxation time of bulk water substantial because biologic photon at and THz scattering infinitesimal Scattering spatial variations tissue, extracellular constituents, scattering biological materials strong visible near-IR wavelengths, and weak at weak at THz longer wavelengths. Biological is are scattering waves several orders magnitude larger biological structures assumed biological macromolecules proteins, tryptophan, carbohydrates) contribute absorption, suggest chromophore Water exhibits unique radiation properties contribute frequencies strong i nteraction create extensive dynamic hydrogen networks behave collective manner intermolecular stretching vibrations network, which origin macroscopic dynamics, strong frequency intermolecular bending vibrations addition to water, many other at THz f biological macromolecules exhibit collective vibrational modes requencies [5256]. to the tissue at THz Overall, biological macromolecules contribute absorption, believed chromophore frequencies optical p roperties water, primary constituent biological tissues, well-characterized frequencies. Figure ) contains absorption values corresponding many but water is to be the main The of skin and the of . all are at THz 3(f-g the and 12 optical penetration frequencies. depths absorption coefficient water value between shows optical penetration of the this depth THz is is then hundred microns lower frequencies, and roughly microns at higher Thermal response tissue When energy transmitted into biological materials, optical energy absorbed target chromophores. Once absorbed, energy converted heat, process generates significant thermal transients, which driving force precursor photothermal processes () for water and ex vivo skin. The of and skin are and range in 100 cm-1 at 0.1 THz to 300 cm-1 at 1.6 THz [42, 57]. The data also that the at THz is a few fifty THz by into 3.3 is and in the are the and for all . Thus, in the absence of photochemical processes and phase comparable porcine transitions, all a by is converted into the THz and the energy absorbed THz-exposed temperature rise. for skin, the rate and of that is into the can be This rate is as the rate of heat S Sðr; zÞ 1⁄4 ma ðr; zÞ6o ðr; zÞ; ð4Þ where o (r,z) is the irradiance at a point located in the tissue at (r,z), and a is the local absorption coefficient at point (r,z). S in Eq. 4, the local rise in the can be the ð5Þ T is the local r,tisthe and c is the $T ðr; zÞ 1⁄4 S ðr; zÞ$t ; rc rise in ) at an oftheheat , isthe heat in Once the calculated location where energy absorption terms are determined, the Pennes’ bioheat equation, which is based on the heat diffusion equation, can be used to model heat transfer [58, 59]: rc @T 1⁄4 kr2 T þ S þ q @t ð6Þ where is the density of the water or tissue (kg m-3), c is the specific heat (J kg- 1K-1), T is the temperature (Kelvin), t is the exposure duration (seconds), is the (Wm-1K-1), S is the heat of generation , and q is the rate of perfusion. Equation 6 can then be converted into 3-D Cartesian domains: @T @ @T @ @T @ @T 1⁄4 k þ k þ k þsþq rc @t @x @x @y @y @z @z ð7Þ can then be used with such as and exposure tissue Using incident irradiance absorption coefficient amount deposited tissue defined (Kelvin energy calculated. typically generation (Wm-3): Then using computed tissue using (gm-3), tissue’s temperature following relationship: temperature duration specific capacity (Jg-1K-1). arbitrary tissue density thermal conductivity and and of THz in For further details These equations on M&S we refer the reader to several books [58, 60]. 4 in to THz can a . in the by to . Thus, knowledge computational modeling simulation (M&S) techniques, Monte Carlo Finite- difference-time-domain (FDTD) methods, to model propagation deposition photons biological tissues. biological materials Biological materials exposed Thermal energy effects undergo changes t various levels Common effects include tissue coagulation, structural protein damage, cell death, activation intracellular stress responses, and THz of THz disruption of cellular organelle functions. Furthermore, since energy is strongly absorbed biological tissues, higher levels power are likely generate pronounced thermal effects biological materials of Comment [i]: Meaning there is more to this in the way in cam alter and impact you but this will be a limited expose’ Comment [i]: How the pleotropic effects of hyperthermia. 4.1 Thermal effects on organisms and biological tissues The type and severity of thermal effects depends on many factors: (i) exponentially dependent on terrhertz impacts Comment [i]: Results of temperature; (ii) hyper thermia — linearly dependent on excess heat damage- the duration of exposure; (iii) – Hyperthermia causes organism, tissue, and several effects at the cell type; (iv) tissue organism and tissue architecture and level. The most macroscopic common effects environment (i.e., include: (i) activation blood perfusion, of acute hydration levels); inflammatory and (v) metabolism, responses; (ii) tissue physiology, and dessication and microenvironment of necrosis; and (iii) cellular constituents irreversible structural protein denaturation, birefringence loss, and visible tissue whitening [6163] [Fig. 4(a-b)]. The sensory nerves that 13 of conventional thermal effects and their respective time-temperature histories is essential for proper analysis of THz bioeffects studies. In this section, we shall provide a summary of the principle thermal effects observed in biological structures. Clearly, this field is too broad for a section of modest length, so we have to only the signs of Here we the of cells, cellular . This section is organized with the intention of providing the reader with a framework to understand the (i.e. pH, O2, CO2, ATP, and ]. These factors vary widely in different biological materials, thus, each vastly . Clearly, given the large number of variables that contribute to thermosensitivity, it is t the exact of all that can be used to relate tissue level. The most . This response, which typically lasts several days, to not only but also to the The Ca+2 a 1 Tissue and ECM 32 4 Cytoskeleton 2A chosen highlight signature hyperthermic damage. describe thermal effects organisms, tissues, and extracellular proteins, mammalian organelles, biological macromolecules pleotropic effects of hyperthermia. 4.1 Thermal effects on organisms and biological on many tissues The type and (i) severity exponentially of thermal effects depends factors: dependent on temperature; (ii) l inearly dependent and cell type; (iv) tissue (i.e., blood on the duration of exposure; and (iii) organism, tissue, architecture macroscopic environment perfusion, hydration l evels); and (v) metabolism, physiology, and microenvironment of c ellular constituents glucose, metabolite levels)[27 material exhibits different thermal sensitivities difficult o determine thermosensitivity a particular biological material. However, biological materials exhibit similar response t rends dosimetry with observed effects . Hyperthermia causes several e ffects at the organism and common effects include: (i) activation of acute inflammatory responses; (ii) tissue dessication and necrosis; and (iii) irreversible tissue structural whitening protein [6163] [Fig. denaturation, birefringence The loss, and visible 4(a-b)]. sensory nerves that reside in skin perceive hyperthermia to be a harmful stimulus, and consequently response respond t o it by activating an acute inflammatory functions remove injurious stimuli, initiate wound healing cascade. blebbing, permeability, perforation, bursts protein damage Intracellular protein damage Protein aggregation reside in skin perceive hyperthermia to be a harmful stimulus, and consequently respond to it by Ca+2 Ca+2 5 destabilize & Disrupt DNA replication & repair Mitochondria 3B 2B HSF HSF 3A HSF HSF HSF 5A 5B Production of H2O2 Om HSF ATP Ribosome 14 disintegrate actin detach from plasma membrane Unfold “Sticky” Nuclear proteins destabilize reactive oxygen species (ROS) Cellular stress response (CSR) Fibrillar collagen Inhibit aerobic glycolysis H-bonds hydrophobic region Denaturation Stress granules HSE-Hsp70 promotor 2C HSP70 15 redox status inhibit burst swelling permeability + Birefringence loss HSF HSF HSF HSF 2D 6 Lysosome H+ ATP ROS Visible tissue whitening Protein Refolding Hydrolytic enzymes Destruction, membrane leakage b 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.01 0.1 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Necrosis Cell Hyperthermia Hypothermia Tissue dessication Irreversible structural protein damage death: apoptosis Visible tissue 10 0 cold Temperature (°C) 1 + C): ASP “Heat damage shock” Cell Pain Mild stress death 0.001 Homeostasis Severe stress “Cold shock” Moderate stress Severe stress Visible tissue d amage (blister) (Pearce 2010) Tissue necrosis ( Moritz 1947) Cellular death (Wilmink 2007) Cell membrane bledding (Borelli 1986) Cellular survival + high CSR (Wilmink 2009) Cellular survival moderate CSR (Wilmink 2009) Cellular survival + mild CSR Pain (Wilmink 2009) Cellular survival + no CSR (Wilmink 2009) (Moritz 1948) Reduced cell growth + C): C prolonged G1 phase (Nishiyama 1997) stress (25-35 IRP + RBM3 (Nishiyama 1997) Moderate stress (15-25 C): Cold HSPs ( Kaneko 1997) Severe cold stress (0-15 (Grand 1995) induced-apoptosis (Fujita 1999, Gregory 1994) Cold-induced-necrosis (Fujita 1999, Gregory 1994) Mild cold 10 100 1000 c Temperature (°C) 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 16 Exposure duration (minutes) Stress Region Region 1 10 100 DNA + high CSR Cell Mild cell Fig. 4 (AC) (4), with to & 1: Cell & & 2: 3: Cell survival stimulation Region death organelle damage Rupture plasma nuclear membrane (Dressler 2005) Disrupt mitochondria membrane p otential (Dressler 2005) Lysosomal membranes leak (Hume 19 78) Mitochondrial damage (Cole 1988) death (Wilmink 2007) Heat-induced-apoptosis (Harmon 1990) Heat- induced-necrosis (Harmon 1990) Plasma membrane proteins (Lepock 1983) DNA Roti double s trand breaks (Takahashi 2008) Inhibit repair (Roti 2010) Cell Cell + mild CSR Roti Cell s & membrane deformation survival (Wilmink 2009) survival + moderate (Wilmink 2009) progression survival (Wilmink 2009) + no CSR Inhibit (Roti 1986) urvival (Wilmink 2009) flattening cytoskeleton destabilization (Dressler 2005) Stimulate cellular growth metabolism & of and CSR Cell cell cycle Cell Exposure duration (minutes) Thermal on effects tissues, extracellular cells, organelles, biological macromolecules. cartoon a. A and (2), p (5), and l graphic illustrating the effects radiation tissue collagen proteins intracellular proteins lasma membranes (3), actin cytoskeleton mitochondria ysosomes (6). b. Thermal effects tissues exposure of i are temperature of are: the plotted versus and exposure duration. Thermal effects cells, organelles, macromolecules and . cardinal signs signs nflammation pain, heat, redness, swelling. These primarily result of the increased blood facilitate the movement of white blood region. Biological tissues typically b ecome desiccated of THz (1), flow that is used cells into the and of c. injured tissue necrotic to 80 loss that the tissue and extracellular collagen proteins (Pathway 1, far left). The image provided in the figure is a histological cross section of heated skin for (see Section 2.1). Figure 4a contains a cartoon graphic illustrating the effect of hyperthermia on of is 17 when exposed elevated temperatures ranging between -100°C several seconds. In at for contrast, irreversible damage extracellular proteins can 50 such as occur considerably lower temperatures ranging between -70°C several minutes [61] [Fig. 4(b)]. In fact, are or they structural proteins, fibrillar collagen, often damaged when tissue temperatures reach 60°C for 1 minute longer [64]. When structural proteins are is a irreversibly damaged become visibly whiter . Tissue whiting consequent o f the biefringence occurs when regular arrangement collagen molecules disrupted stained with a Gomori Trichrome collagen stain. The the in the skin the in the Often times, tissue effects are more subtle, and are not clearly visible. For and . It is important to note that visible tissue damage is used as a biological endpoint for the determination of safety standards image that red, illustrates denatured collagen wounded region stains whereas healthy collagen untreated skin . region stains green these instances, tissue damage assessment requires microscopic techniques, such as transmission polarizing, transmission electron, multi-photon microscopy at optical and higher THz frequencies (i.e. ANSI standards). Thus, knowledge of the thermal effects of tissue is important for the determination of safety standards at THz is cells The level the [6669]. The all cell lines can be [65]. A in Fig. 4b. 4.2 of [6669], and (iv) cell via plot of on (ii) (iii) at a and 2, and of [70]. Consistent with this theory, Dressler et al. demonstrated that cells exposed to mild heat stress (40 and 42°C for 30 min) maintained their structural integrity, but their F-actin network appeared mildly destabilized, giving the cells a [70]. Clearly, mild hyperthermia can lead to subtle morphological effects; such also and mild and 72]. cells 46°C for 30-50 min (Fig. 4c, : (i) size, ECM and and (iv) and of cells is cell type a into 1, and mild 40-42°C are such such as cell to be a of 18 frequencies summary hyperthermic tissue effects provided Thermal effects mammalian most common thermal effects observed cellular include following: (i) stimulation of cell growth metabolism; morphological changes (i.e., swelling, blebbing, shrinking); activation cellular stress response (CSR) mechanisms death apoptotic necrotic pathways thermal sensitivity dependent; however, typically share similar response trend. This trend generalized and grouped three distinct time-temperature dosimetry regions, where region region region 3 comprise the (Fig. 4a, c). not to can lead to and effects observed for increasing levels hyperthermia Temperatures ranging between typically lethal most cells (Fig. 4c, Region 1). However, exposures subtle morphological alterations, flattening membrane ruffling. These effects are believed result of cytoskeleton reorganization destabilization actin-plasma membrane connections exposures intracellular (4042°C for 1030 min) has been shown to of a flattened signaling appearance such as [66, 69, 71] (Fig. 4c). In fact, pathways, cellular growth metabolic processes thermal stress increase the g rowth of cells by 20% [66, 69, 71, 42– (i.e., to of cell cycle however, activate Mammalian metabolic rates exposed to temperatures ranging between Region 2) typically exhibit s everal signature effects dramatically altered cellular (ii) (iii) i morphology shape, irregularities, and roughness); reduced adhesion intracellular actin cytoskeleton; nhibition progression; activation molecular the Specifically, Dressler et al. demonstrated that cells to 45°C for 30 min a a in cell size, and [70]. In addition to these 43– of cell cycle . For structural and morphological effects, 44°C for 15-50 min can also the of CSR 19 defense reaction called cellular spheroidal stress and i cell response (CSR). exposed exhibit disintegrated actin network, rough rregular plasma membrane, decrease shape temperatures ranging between result in the impairment triggering mechanisms observed undergo a progression transient intracellular and/or is well cause exposed block, while when exposed exhibited lasting G2 phase S-phase DNA block mechanism documented literature general consensus activate these mechanisms combat and survive hyperthermic stress . CSR mechanisms i nvolve many pathways, i ncluding redox, sensing repair, molecular c haperones, proteolysis, energy metabolism, apoptosis group evolutionary conserved proteins emerged mediators . These proteins, collectively referred to as by cells minimal stress proteins, significantly upregulated immediately exposure t stress most widely studied family minimal stress proteins shock proteins example, cells to 45°C for 15 min were G2 to 45°C for 30 min, they CSR and the to a long and a late [73]. The in the [6669, 7477], is that cells to and and [78]. Many proteins are associated with these pathways; however, a of 44 have as core [79] are aftero.The of are the heat (Hsps), which includes Hsp70, Hsp40, Hsp60, and Hsp105 [6669, 7477] (Fig. 4a, c). with cells than 46°C of of etc); or (Fig. 4b). and (iii) they [8183]. At to the effects of hypothermia- based effects will become clearer in subsequent sections. In THz cells cold to of such on can to temperatures Mammalian exposed severe thermal stress greater ablative regime) exhibit gross alterations to most cellular components (Fig. 4c, Region 3). These effects i nclude the collapse cellular membranes shape, complete destabilization and d isintegration actin cytoskeleton network, rupture of both via plasma and and nuclear death apoptotic necrotic pathways general, preferentially activate apoptotic pathways w hen resources available (ATP, oxygen, however, w hen resources unavailable, cells die via necrosis pathways [ 80]. Finally, addition in can also to hyperthermia, hypothermia shock temperatures cause severe cellular effects shock effects are t (i) Mild (25 mild cold ypically divided into (15 cells three time-temperature categories: 35°C); (ii) Moderate 25°C); Severe 15°C). Under shock conditions express cold- inducible proteins (CIRP), while apoptosis-specific at more m oderate conditions express HSPs proteins ( ASPs) point clear to reader e decided address hypothermia (i.e., (Fig. 4a, c). In cold Cold (0 both this it may not be [70], and cell cells they have the are and why we hav . The relevance and importance of the of . 4.3 is brief, many bioeffects studies expose under shock conditions, thus, knowledge hypothermia-induced cellular effects critical differentiate origin effects Thermal effects cellular organelles Hyperthermia cause direct effects cellular Comment [i]: One solution is to increase saturated fats in diet not omega 3s which woul complement the terrahertz tech by further causing the cells to break down and cause the hydrogen in the fluids to accentuate the frequency organelles. Damage organelles consequent damage to the outer we shall membranes major organelle. section, briefly describe thermal effects frequently observed on the and plasma membrane, cytoskeleton, mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleus . Heat can cause and its gross several changes to the These of plasma membrane interconnected cytoskeleton. effects include morphological changes, redistribution membrane proteins, actin-plasma membrane detachment, membrane perforation, c hanges in membrane permeability, spikes intracellular calcium The of of to with cell type, the and ensitivity to 20 is often times a direct of of each In this the that are actin in vital cellular protection, several groups have provided compelling evidence that the plasma membrane may be the most component [70, 87]. In fact, a recent study showed that morphology changes were observed in cells heated at 45°C for 30 min. These effects are to be a direct result of from the levels [70, 8486] (Fig. 4a, c). Although surprising, given the fact that the plasma membrane provides thermosensitive cellular membranes believed cytoskeleton detachment . Data from this study also showed that these over the 40 to 56°C are range [70]. on the These properties plasma membrane effects continuously enhanced temperature thermal s plasma depends composition and on the levels of and the ratio on properties of the local membrane. depend cholesterol, membrane fats. Thus, since of cells also cell type. The effect that thermosensitivity has been in These studies specifically showed that cells supplemented with polyunsaturated proteins, saturated unsaturated membrane has on composition varies thermal sensitivity depends membrane fatty acids had increased thermosensivity, whereas cells fatty acids had highlighted composition several studies with [88, 89]. Heat can (i) disrupt the redox status of cells; (v) ATP (Fig. 4a, c) [27]. mild heat stress (40 and are (Bax) and 2 [91]. [88, 89]. supplemented saturated decreased t hermosensivity several interrelated effects on 90]; (ii) of ROS; (iv) mitochondria: membrane potential (m)[84, change increased bursts stimulate mitochondrial enzyme activity (i.e. citrate synthase)[87]; inhibit production; destabilize intracellular proteins Membrane disruption typically under pronounced under severe Membrane disruptions mediated signaling of pro-apoptotic family members, particular caspase cause (iii) cause and (vi) does not occur 45°C for 30 min), but it becomes quite (50-56°C for 30 min) [90]. to be via the Bcl-2 in conditions believed antiapopotic In , are to the of by50%,andtheevelofATP[87, 91].Infact,athatcellsheirATP combination redox, almost by [87]. to a 20 min hea can also lead to the can lead to of CSR . Heat can on [9295]. Heat increase and DNA 41 and 43°C for 90 min [95]. In in and into the can such as 45°C for 90 min, can in the of . such as and . The nuclear membrane has long been considered the most thermoresilinient cellular organelle. This theory seemed reasonable given the fact that temperatures of 56°C for 30 min are required to puncture the nuclear membrane [70]. A that the of that are is the to date [96]. The nuclear matrix plays several vital functions, including DNA at 45°C of both 21 mechanisms, these effects believed directly affect cellular generation ROS, reduce citrate synthase activity ultimately reduce production l recent study showed decrease t content nearly 60% when exposed t shock These primary effects destabilization cytosolic and nuclear proteins, which activation damage cause several effects lysosomal membranes stress at can temperatures membranes ranging between durations trigger increases lysosomal enzyme activity addition, higher temperatures, make lysosomal leaky, resulting release hydrogen hydrolytic enzymes cytosol Thus, these primary effects cause drastic secondary effects, proteolysis deficiencies impaired cellular function more recent report, however, provided definitive evidence nucleolus is a repository stress stress responsive proteins released in that a o as the response to thermal [96]. This work also provided evidence critical underlying nuclear structure, referred t nuclear matrix, most temperature s ensitive subcellular component identified replication, RNA and DNA . heat shock has of the cell, and thus processing, the to may be the key cell the thermal effects of the nucleus, we refer the reader to the following articles [73, 84, 97, 98]. 4.4 on The repair Thus, potential disrupt many critical functions mechanism underlying death . For further details on Thermal effects biological macromolecules Comment [i]: How convenient to be able to utilize something and not have the capacity to validate if it has been used thermal effects result of to excitation groups, of the the CSR (50-60°C) cause (40-48°C) cause the and are a direct result that (Fig. 4a). In observed exceeds at a and 22 level are a direct . At a molecular level, when rises increase the When this cellular provided organelle damage intracellular biomolecules biological tissues are heated, the of the ensuing (i.e., DNA) undergo conformational changes and/or denature. Thermal effects to macromolecules are typically subdivided into two temperature kinetic energy tissue’s water and the biomolecules. energy energy by the i ntramolecular bonds, which holds the molecules together, biological molecules lipids, proteins, mRNA, where higher thermal ablation te mperatures irreversible damage, and hyperthermic t emperatures reversible damage of of .C ommon reversible effects include deactivation enzymes , protein unfolding or denaturation, acceleration cellular metabolism . These and and DNA. When cells the effects disruption of the of hydrogen disulfide bonds maintain tertiary structure proteins intracellular proteins are reversibly damaged, mammalian typically activate mechanisms (described above) to repair damage contrast, when proteins irreversibly damaged, cells activate proteolysis mechanisms degrade proteins lysosomes. are to in For more details on the thermal effects on macromolecules we refer the reader to Urano et al. [27] 4.5 are . Thus, in may Microthermal biological effects Hydrated biological tissues known strongly to THz absorb radiation at THz to cause frequencies high-power radiation is a ssumed thermal effects biological materials. In addition conventional thermal effects, however, several researchers proposed radiation induce low-level thermal nonthermal appropriately, microthermal effects. to have that THz also , , or more These theories were initially hypothesized by Frohlich et al. in 1971 [99, 100], and more recent studies propose that these are the direct coherent of [99] or linear/nonlinear resonance mechanisms [101, 102]. In recent years, several research groups have conducted extensive efforts to develop more established theoretical frameworks to support the concept of “nonthermal” effects [101, 103, 104]. These that microthermal effects mediated through excitation biomolecules studies suggest nonthermal radiation coupling mechanisms oscillates (picoseconds) natural phonon frequencies molecules radiation create localized are openings believed t “bubbles” between strands. openings o drive double- stranded (dsDNA) to “unzip” and tools are not it is interfere transcription processes Modern available detect microthermal effects; therefore, difficult, impossible, existence effects experimentally of THz to DNA may may be due to the fact that THz (i.e., THz = 1012 Hz) on the same time scale as the of biological [101, 102]. Interestingly, these models also contend that the coupling the DNA DNA [101, 102]. Such However, since many observed effects reported in the THz be by the rise (i.e., . As a result, the concept of these effects has remained a constant subject of debate [105, 106]. verify the of such with to if not to bioeffects literature cannot readily explained temperature generated during irradiation conventional thermal effects) we Comment [i]: Don’t you Just love it– biological research- means testing on mankind and life forms of the planet 23 that it is that the reader is aware of these potential and . 5 Terahertz biological research Although an extensive review on THz sources, detectors, and technologies is beyond the scope of this review, a brief overview of equipment commonly used in THz biological research is valuable for subsequent bioeffects discussions. For additional details about THz technologies we refer the reader to several excellent reviews and books [107116]. In this section, we provide an overview of the main sources, detectors, and equipment used in THz biological research. We then proceed by describing the systems and tools used to control exposure conditions and . We conclude with a section describing the common challenges faced in THz biological research. 5.1 Terahertz sources THz sources are typically categorized according to their principle operational scheme. The most used in THz believe mechanisms conduct dosimetry common (i) direct schemes biological research following: generation sources; solid-state electronic devices (frequency up-conversion accelerating electrons-based The three most sources . 5.1.1 direct Direct generation sources common generation sources far-infrared (FIR), electrically-pumped quantum cascade lasers. commonly biological research. source dating 1960’s, oldest sources typically tunable consist high following components power carbon vacuum envelope container gases; medium: low and (iv) pressure molecular methanol (CH3OH) intracavity waveguides propagate radiation transverse direction action achieved molecules, are solid state, and Of these, the FIR laser is the most With initial uses are the laser for THz used back to the FIR laser is one of the of the . In brief, lasing using the pump laser to excite the levels of gas have in the THz FIR lasers that make them an ideal for THz . First, they provide high levels of average output power, with values on the order of 100 mW at many frequency lines. Notably, these power values are the highest levels of all commercially available bench-top THz sources [43, 119122] (Fig. 5a). Second, FIRs are widely tunable to hundreds of discrete frequency lines across the THz spectral band. Fortunately for FIR users, tuning or “hopping” to each discrete frequency line is straightforward and is achieved by simply adjusting the pump laser wavelength, gas type and pressure. FIRs THz radiation that is high wave (CW), and ~50 kHz). Finally, and perhaps most importantly, FIR sources are easy to operate and maintain. The main drawbacks of FIR lasers are their large footprint, weight, and expense. Systems can cost in excess of several hundred thousand dollars. In summary, FIR laser sources provide high output power, a wide range of operational frequencies, and high laser beam quality; they are a very for THz . Such sources are particularly useful to researchers who are interested in investigating the the early THz [117, (i) diode (CO2) laser; (ii) to house molecular gases, such as to THz 118]. FIR lasers pump source: a laser cavity with a (iii) gain in is important effects (ii) laser THz laser ); (iii) vibrational which transition frequencies spectrum. exhibit several characteristics source bioeffects studies Third, generate quality, coherent, monochromatic, continuous narrow linewidth (typically therefore, attractive source biological research 24 induced biological effects frequency dependence of THz . 5.1.2 Electronic THz sources using frequency up-conversion schemes In recent years, numerous electronic devices have been developed to generate modest power levels of THz radiation at frequencies less than 1 THz. Electronic devices typically consist of a microwave synthesizer or oscillator, and a frequency multiplier element, which consists of an array of schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). In the to and the SBD to of the to THz (i.e., frequency up-conversion)[123]. Electronic sources exhibit several design and performance features that make them useful devices for THz biological research studies. First, they are capable of providing high levels of Power (mW) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 54 10 54 FEL IMPATT FIR gas laser 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 103 210 103 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -1 -2 -3 BWOs Electronic sources 1 0.1 10 Frequency (THz) b c IR Camera Electric heater brief, oscillator functions functions radiation generate “seed” microwave radiation, array multiply the frequency incoming microwave frequencies CO2 Laser Spectrometer Transparent windows THz FIR Laser Mirrors N2 Input d IR Camera THz FIR Laser Well plate e Single well f THz Gold plated mirror Fig. 5 (af) THz biological research: Sources and Equipment. a. Frequency-power spectrum for several THz sources. b. Image of a exposure chamber created using a cell culture incubator (Reprinted with permission from [145]). c. Macroscopic image of in vitro THz exposure setup: FIR THz laser source, CO2 laser spectrometer, temperature-controlled exposure chamber, and electric heater. (Modified and reprinted with permission from [120]). d. Magnification of THz transmission and delivery optics: electric shutter, flat gold plated mirror, parabolic silver plated mirror, well plate holder (adjustable in XYZ), and IR camera. e. Magnification of THz-culture plate interaction. f. Sample representative image of THz beam profile at airwell interface measured with Pyrocam III detector array. 25 beam Electric shutter Comment [i]: Type of devices to increase power out put 26 100 mW) at lower THz frequencies. they CW THz radiation. Finally, they are rugged, compact, and operate at room temperature. Due to the above properties, solid state THz sources are frequently used in both basic and . However, despite their incredible efficiency at lower THz frequencies, such approaches are limited because they are only capable of generating a milliwatt of power at higher frequencies [111]. In fact, recent data indicates that the output power of electronic sources drops off between 1/f2 and 1/f3 with increases in frequency [111]. In recent years, several groups have addressed the above challenges, resulting in the generation of higher power Gunn diodes [124, 125], [131]. For example, InP Gunn diodes can now generate greater than 100 mW of power at 0.1 THz and 0.1 mW at 0.48 THz [124, 125] (Fig. 5a). Several groups are also developing more advanced frequency- multiplier systems, such as varactors and varistors. Overall, electronic solid- state devices are a reliable source of low frequency THz radiation, and they are frequently used in THz bioeffects studies. With future advances in fabrication techniques, such sources may generate higher levels of output power at higher THz frequencies, and may increased use in THz biological research. 5.1.3 Accelerating electron-based THz sources Accelerating electron-based THz sources, such as backward wave oscillators (BWOs) and free electron lasers average output power (approximately Second, generate narrow line-width (10-6), electronic applied research frequency multiplier transit-time units based on SBDs, impact ionization avalanche devices (IMPATTs) [126, 127], tunneling tunneling transit time diodes (TUNNETT) [128130], and resonant diodes (RTDs) (FELs), are frequently used for THz bioeffects investigations. Interestingly, despite their striking differences both in appearance and size, BWOs and FELs both function using the same general operation principle. both use a of and an to and an sources system magnets . The primary difference between these systems is that the external structure in a BWO control, accelerate, collimate, is a comb grating, while in a FEL it is a wiggler system. In both systems, the external structure functions to create a periodic acceleration of the electrons in the beam, which in turn results in the generation of THz radiation. In the subsequent section, we shall explain several important features of BWOs and FELs. BWOs are table-top devices that use electron-vacuum tubes to generate THz radiation. These devices are referred to as BWOs because they use an electron beam that travels in the of a travelling EM wave. For years after their first demonstration in 1951 [133135], BWOs were primarily developed and used in Russia. However, in recent years, several companies have increased their efforts to commercialize BWOs for use in the US and Europe. Conventional BWOs consist of a magnetic housing system (~1 Tesla), high voltage power supply (typically, 26.5 kV), comb grating, cooling system, waveguide, and electron gun (cathode and anode). The frequency of the wave generated by a BWO is controlled by the velocity of the electron beam. Therefore, the output THz frequency can be directly adjusted by altering the bias voltage. Conventional BWO sources are tunable over a wide range of frequencies (0.035- 1.42 THz), provide modest power levels (0.2100 mW), and offer narrow linewidths (110 MHz). BWOs were utilized in several of the initial THz bioeffects studies [136]. However, these devices have several performance and commercialization drawbacks, which have greatly limited their use. First, BWOs are quite expensive because they require sophisticated engineering and development approaches. Second, they have limited portability due to their cumbersome magnetic housing system (i.e., 27 L, 100 lbs, 1 Tesla). Finally, they have short working lifetimes (approximately 500 h). This is primarily because electron vacuum tubes wear down quickly due to their consistent exposure to extreme temperatures (1200°C), voltages (6.5 kV), and pressures (10-8 Torr). Over the past few decades, several FELs have been developed to create high power THz radiation. Four THz FELs are located in the United States (Jefferson Laboratory, University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB), University of Hawaii, and Stanford University), and several are located in Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Germany, Australia, France, Russia, and Italy. THz FELs consist of two primary components: a large electron accelerator (linac or

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NANOTECHNOLOGY

1 This white paper presents a collective vision from the collaborating Federal agencies of the emerging and innovative solutions needed to realize the Nanotechnology-Inspired Grand Challenge for Future Computing. It describes the technical priorities shared by multiple Federal agencies, highlights the challenges and opportunities associated with these priorities, and presents a guiding vision for theContinue reading “NANOTECHNOLOGY”

NANOTECHNOLOGY & ADVANCED MANUFACTURING BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

cdn.ymaws.com/www.cste.org/resource/resmgr/weston/2016WESTON/15.Geraci_Nano_and_Advanced_.pdf Nanotechnology and Advanced Manufacturing BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS “OS&H for 21st Century Manufacturing” WestON September 30, 2016 Click to access 15.Geraci_Nano_and_Advanced_.pdf Nanotechnology and Advanced Manufacturing “OS&H for 21st Century Manufacturing” WestON September 30, 2016 Charles L. Geraci, Ph.D., CIH Associate Director for Nanotechnology Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthContinue reading “NANOTECHNOLOGY & ADVANCED MANUFACTURING BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS”

Nanotechnology and Advanced Manufacturing “OS&H for 21st Century Manufacturing” WestON September 30, 2016 Charles L. Geraci, Ph.D., CIH Associate Director for Nanotechnology Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health The findings and conclusions in this presentation have not been formally disseminated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy

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RAND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PDF

http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2006/RAND_TR303.pdf RAND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PDF https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2006/RAND_TR303.pdf rganization providing objective analysis and effective solutions that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors around the world. Support RAND Purchase this document Browse Books & Publications Make a charitable contribution For More Information Visit RAND at http://www.rand.org Explore RAND National Security Research Division View document detailsContinue reading “RAND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PDF”

https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/IF11150.pdf Updated December 19, 2019 Defense Primer: U.S. Policy on Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems Lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) are a special class of weapon systems that use sensor suites and computer algorithms to independently identify a target and employ an onboard weapon system to engage and destroy the target without manual human control of the system. Although these systems generally do not yet exist, it is believed they would enable military operations in communications-degraded or -denied environments in which traditional systems may not be able to operate. Contrary to a number of news reports, U.S. policy does not prohibit the development or employment of LAWS. Although the United States does not currently have LAWS in its inventory, some senior military and defense leaders have stated that the United States may be compelled to develop LAWS in the future if potential U.S. adversaries choose to do so. At the same time, a growing number of states and nongovernmental organizations are appealing to the international community for regulation of or a ban on LAWS due to ethical concerns. Developments in both autonomous weapons technology and international discussions of LAWS could hold implications for congressional oversight, defense investments, military concepts of operations, treaty-making, and the future of war. U.S. Policy Definitions. There is no agreed definition of lethal autonomous weapon systems that is used in international fora. However, Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 3000.09 (the directive), which establishes U.S. policy on autonomy in weapons systems, provides definitions for different categories of autonomous weapon systems for the purposes of the U.S. military. These definitions are principally grounded in the role of the human operator with regard to target selection and engagement decisions, rather than in the technological sophistication of the weapon system. DODD 3000.09 defines LAWS as “weapon system[s] that, once activated, can select and engage targets without further intervention by a human operator.” This concept of autonomy is also known as “human out of the loop” or “full autonomy.” The directive contrasts LAWS with human- supervised, or “human on the loop,” autonomous weapon systems, in which operators have the ability to monitor and halt a weapon’s target engagement. Another category is semi-autonomous, or “human in the loop,” weapon systems that “only engage individual targets or specific target groups that have been selected by a human operator.” Semi- autonomous weapons include so-called “fire and forget” weapons, such as certain types of guided missiles, that deliver effects to human-identified targets using autonomous functions. The directive does not cover “autonomous or semi- autonomous cyberspace systems for cyberspace operations; unarmed, unmanned platforms; unguided munitions; munitions manually guided by the operator (e.g., laser- or wire-guided munitions); mines; [and] unexploded explosive ordnance,” nor subject them to its guidelines. Role of human operator. DODD 3000.09 requires that all systems, including LAWS, be designed to “allow commanders and operators to exercise appropriate levels of human judgment over the use of force.” As noted in an August 2018 U.S. government white paper, “‘appropriate’ is a flexible term that reflects the fact that there is not a fixed, one-size-fits-all level of human judgment that should be applied to every context. What is ‘appropriate’ can differ across weapon systems, domains of warfare, types of warfare, operational contexts, and even across different functions in a weapon system.” Furthermore, “human judgment over the use of force” does not require manual human “control” of the weapon system, as is often reported, but rather broader human involvement in decisions about how, when, where, and why the weapon will be employed. This includes a human determination that the weapon will be used “with appropriate care and in accordance with the law of war, applicable treaties, weapon system safety rules, and applicable rules of engagement.” To aid this determination, DODD 3000.09 requires that “[a]dequate training, [tactics, techniques, and procedures], and doctrine are available, periodically reviewed, and used by system operators and commanders to understand the functioning, capabilities, and limitations of the system’s autonomy in realistic operational conditions.” The directive also requires that the weapon’s human-machine interface be “readily understandable to trained operators” so they can make informed decisions regarding the weapon’s use. Weapons review process. DODD 3000.09 requires that the software and hardware of all systems, including lethal autonomous weapons, be tested and evaluated to ensure they Function as anticipated in realistic operational environments against adaptive adversaries; complete engagements in a timeframe consistent with commander and operator intentions and, if unable to do so, terminate engagements or seek additional human operator input before continuing https://crsreports.congress.gov the engagement; and are sufficiently robust to minimize failures that could lead to unintended engagements or to loss of control of the system to unauthorized parties. Any changes to the system’s operating state—for example, due to machine learning—would require the system to go through testing and evaluation again to ensure that it has retained its safety features and ability to operate as intended. Senior-level review. In addition to the standard weapons review process, a secondary senior-level review is required for LAWS and certain types of semi-autonomous and human-supervised autonomous weapons that deliver lethal effects. This review requires the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and either the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment or the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering to approve the system “before formal development and again before fielding in accordance with the guidelines” listed in Enclosure 3 of the directive. In the event of “urgent military operational need,” this senior-level review may be waived by the Deputy Secretary of Defense “with the exception of the requirement for a legal review.” The United States is not currently developing LAWS; therefore, no weapon system has gone through the senior- level review process to date. International Discussions of LAWS Since 2014, the United States has participated in international discussions of LAWS, sometimes colloquially referred to as “killer robots,” under the auspices of the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (UN CCW). In 2017, these discussions transitioned from an informal “meeting of experts” to a formal “Group of Governmental Experts” (GGE) tasked with examining the technological, military, ethical, and legal dimensions of LAWS. In 2018 and 2019, the GGE has considered proposals by states parties to issue political declarations about LAWS, as well as proposals to regulate them. In addition, approximately 25 countries and 100 nongovernmental organizations have called for a preemptive ban on LAWS due to ethical concerns, including concerns about operational risk, accountability for use, and compliance with the proportionality and distinction requirements of the law of war. The U.S. government does not currently support a ban on LAWS and has addressed ethical concerns about the systems in a March 2018 white paper, “Humanitarian Benefits of Emerging Technologies in the Area of Lethal Autonomous Weapons.” The paper notes that “automated target identification, tracking, selection, and engagement functions can allow weapons to strike military objectives more accurately and with less risk of collateral damage” or civilian casualties. Although the UN CCW is a consensus-based forum, the outcome of its discussions could hold implications for U.S. policy on lethal autonomous weapons. Potential Questions for Congress  To what extent are potential U.S. adversaries developing LAWS?  How should the United States balance LAWS research and development with ethical considerations?  What role should the United States play in UN CCW discussions of LAWS? Should the United States support the status quo, propose a political declaration, or advocate regulation of or a ban on LAWS?  If the United States chooses to develop LAWS, are current weapons review processes and legal standards for their employment in conflict sufficient? Defense Primer: U.S. Policy on Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems CRS Products CRS Report R45178, Artificial Intelligence and National Security, by Kelley M. Sayler CRS Report R44466, Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems: Issues for Congress, by Nathan J. Lucas CRS In Focus IF11294, International Discussions Concerning Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems, by Zelin Liu and Michael Moodie CRS Report R45392, U.S. Ground Forces Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS) and Artificial Intelligence (AI): Considerations for Congress, coordinated by Andrew Feickert Other Resources Department of Defense Directive 3000.09, “Autonomy in Weapon Systems,” Updated May 8, 2017, https://www.esd.whs.mil/portals/54/documents/dd/issuances/ dodd/300009p.pdf. U.S. Government, “Humanitarian Benefits of Emerging Technologies in the Area of Lethal Autonomous Weapons,” March 28, 2018, https://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/7C177 AE5BC10B588C125825F004B06BE/$file/CCW_GGE.1_2018_ WP.4.pdf. U.S. Government, “Human-Machine Interaction in the Development, Deployment and Use of Emerging Technologies in the Area of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems,” August 28, 2018, https://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/D1A2 BA4B7B71D29FC12582F6004386EF/$file/2018_GGE+LAWS_ August_Working+Paper_US.pdf. United Nations Office at Geneva, “Background on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems in the CCW,” https://www.unog.ch/80256EE600585943/(httpPages)/8FA3C2 562A60FF81C1257CE600393DF6?OpenDocument. Defense Innovation Board, “AI Principles: Recommendations on the Ethical Use of Artificial Intelligence by the Department of Defense,” October 2019. https://crsreports.congress.gov Kelley M. Sayler, Analyst in Advanced Technology and Global Security IF11150 Defense Primer: U.S. Policy on Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems Disclaimer This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress. It operates solely at the behest of and under the direction of Congress. Information in a CRS Report should not be relied upon for purposes other than public understanding of information that has been provided by CRS to Members of Congress in connection with CRS’s institutional role. CRS Reports, as a work of the United States Government, are not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Any CRS Report may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without permission from CRS. However, as a CRS Report may include copyrighted images or material from a third party, you may need to obtain the permission of the copyright holder if you wish to copy or otherwise use copyrighted material. https://crsreports.congress.gov | IF11150 · VERSION 2 · UPDATED Ms. Adams

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Acoustics and Noise Control | NASA

The Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate’s Acoustics Office is responsible for ensuring a safe, healthy acoustic environment in which astronaut crews can live, communicate and work. This means ensuring that space vehicle environments are not too noisy, do not have irritating audible sounds except when trying to get the crew’s attention and do not have startlingContinue reading “Acoustics and Noise Control | NASA”

Did the CIA’s notorious mind control program create an infamous killer? – StephenKinzer.com

Did the CIA’s notorious mind control program create an infamous killer? – StephenKinzer.com — Read on stephenkinzer.com/2020/03/did-the-cias-notorious-mind-control-program-create-an-infamous-killer/ Did the CIA’s notorious mind control program create an infamous killer? – StephenKinzer.com Did the CIA’s notorious mind control program create an infamous killer? DID THE CIA’S NOTORIOUS MIND CONTROL PROGRAM CREATE AN INFAMOUS KILLER? Published by StephenContinue reading “Did the CIA’s notorious mind control program create an infamous killer? – StephenKinzer.com”

50 U.S. Code § 1520a – Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents | U.S. Code | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute

50 U.S. Code § 1520a – Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents | U.S. Code | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute — Read on http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/50/1520a 50 U.S. Code§ 1520a.Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents U.S. Code  Notes  prev |  next (a)ProhibitedContinue reading “50 U.S. Code § 1520a – Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents | U.S. Code | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute”

US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 The Mind Has No Firewall TIMOTHY L. THOMAS https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a78e/ab3556d6858568e7b18c631773badd3ea963.pdf?_ga=2.145753588.1522176186.1590373805-858568864.1590373805 PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 The Mind Has No Firewall TIMOTHY L. THOMAS From Parameters, Spring 1998, pp. 84-92. Go to Spring issue Table of Contents. Go to Cumulative Article Index. “It is completely clear that the state which is first to create such weapons will achieve incomparable superiority.” — Major I. Chernishev, Russian army[1] The human body, much like a computer, contains myriad data processors. They include, but are not limited to, the chemical-electrical activity of the brain, heart, and peripheral nervous system, the signals sent from the cortex region of the brain to other parts of our body, the tiny hair cells in the inner ear that process auditory signals, and the light-sensitive retina and cornea of the eye that process visual activity. [2] We are on the threshold of an era in which these data processors of the human body may be manipulated or debilitated. Examples of unplanned attacks on the body’s data-processing capability are well-documented. Strobe lights have been known to cause epileptic seizures. Not long ago in Japan, children watching television cartoons were subjected to pulsating lights that caused seizures in some and made others very sick. Defending friendly and targeting adversary data-processing capabilities of the body appears to be an area of weakness in the US approach to information warfare theory, a theory oriented heavily toward systems data-processing and designed to attain information dominance on the battlefield. Or so it would appear from information in the open, unclassified press. This US shortcoming may be a serious one, since the capabilities to alter the data- processing systems of the body already exist. A recent edition of U.S. News and World Report highlighted several of these “wonder weapons” (acoustics, microwaves, lasers) and noted that scientists are “searching the electromagnetic and sonic spectrums for wavelengths that can affect human behavior.”[3] A recent Russian military article offered a slightly different slant to the problem, declaring that “humanity stands on the brink of a psychotronic war” with the mind and body as the focus. That article discussed Russian and international attempts to control the psycho- physical condition of man and his decisionmaking processes by the use of VHF-generators, “noiseless http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/98spring/thomas.htm (1 of 9)11/4/2005 11:43:44 PM PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 cassettes,” and other technologies. An entirely new arsenal of weapons, based on devices designed to introduce subliminal messages or to alter the body’s psychological and data-processing capabilities, might be used to incapacitate individuals. These weapons aim to control or alter the psyche, or to attack the various sensory and data-processing systems of the human organism. In both cases, the goal is to confuse or destroy the signals that normally keep the body in equilibrium. This article examines energy-based weapons, psychotronic weapons, and other developments designed to alter the ability of the human body to process stimuli. One consequence of this assessment is that the way we commonly use the term “information warfare” falls short when the individual soldier, not his equipment, becomes the target of attack. Information Warfare Theory and the Data-Processing Element of Humans In the United States the common conception of information warfare focuses primarily on the capabilities of hardware systems such as computers, satellites, and military equipment which process data in its various forms. According to Department of Defense Directive S-3600.1 of 9 December 1996, information warfare is defined as “an information operation conducted during time of crisis or conflict to achieve or promote specific objectives over a specific adversary or adversaries.” An information operation is defined in the same directive as “actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems while defending one’s own information and information systems.” These “information systems” lie at the heart of the modernization effort of the US armed forces and other countries, and manifest themselves as hardware, software, communications capabilities, and highly trained individuals. Recently, the US Army conducted a mock battle that tested these systems under simulated combat conditions. US Army Field Manual 101-5-1, Operational Terms and Graphics (released 30 September 1997), defines information warfare as “actions taken to achieve information superiority by affecting a hostile’s information, information based-processes, and information systems, while defending one’s own information, information processes, and information systems.” The same manual defines information operations as a “continuous military operation within the military information environment that enables, enhances, and protects friendly forces’ ability to collect, process, and act on information to achieve an advantage across the full range of military operations. [Information operations include] interacting with the Global Information Environment . . . and exploiting or denying an adversary’s information and decision capabilities.”[4] This “systems” approach to the study of information warfare emphasizes the use of data, referred to as information, to penetrate an adversary’s physical defenses that protect data (information) in order to obtain operational or strategic advantage. It has tended to ignore the role of the human body as an information- or data-processor in this quest for dominance except in those cases where an individual’s logic or rational thought may be upset via disinformation or deception. As a consequence little attention http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/98spring/thomas.htm (2 of 9)11/4/2005 11:43:44 PM PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 is directed toward protecting the mind and body with a firewall as we have done with hardware systems. Nor have any techniques for doing so been prescribed. Yet the body is capable not only of being deceived, manipulated, or misinformed but also shut down or destroyed–just as any other data- processing system. The “data” the body receives from external sources–such as electromagnetic, vortex, or acoustic energy waves–or creates through its own electrical or chemical stimuli can be manipulated or changed just as the data (information) in any hardware system can be altered. The only body-related information warfare element considered by the United States is psychological operations (PSYOP). In Joint Publication 3-13.1, for example, PSYOP is listed as one of the elements of command and control warfare. The publication notes that “the ultimate target of [information warfare] is the information dependent process, whether human or automated . . . . Command and control warfare (C2W) is an application of information warfare in military operations. . . . C2W is the integrated use of PSYOP, military deception, operations security, electronic warfare and physical destruction.”[5] One source defines information as a “nonaccidental signal used as an input to a computer or communications system.”[6] The human body is a complex communication system constantly receiving nonaccidental and accidental signal inputs, both external and internal. If the ultimate target of information warfare is the information-dependent process, “whether human or automated,” then the definition in the joint publication implies that human data-processing of internal and external signals can clearly be considered an aspect of information warfare. Foreign researchers have noted the link between humans as data processors and the conduct of information warfare. While some study only the PSYOP link, others go beyond it. As an example of the former, one recent Russian article described offensive information warfare as designed to “use the Internet channels for the purpose of organizing PSYOP as well as for `early political warning’ of threats to American interests.”[7] The author’s assertion was based on the fact that “all mass media are used for PSYOP . . . [and] today this must include the Internet.” The author asserted that the Pentagon wanted to use the Internet to “reinforce psychological influences” during special operations conducted outside of US borders to enlist sympathizers, who would accomplish many of the tasks previously entrusted to special units of the US armed forces. Others, however, look beyond simple PSYOP ties to consider other aspects of the body’s data-processing capability. One of the principal open source researchers on the relationship of information warfare to the body’s data-processing capability is Russian Dr. Victor Solntsev of the Baumann Technical Institute in Moscow. Solntsev is a young, well-intentioned researcher striving to point out to the world the potential dangers of the computer operator interface. Supported by a network of institutes and academies, Solntsev has produced some interesting concepts.[8] He insists that man must be viewed as an open system instead of simply as an organism or closed system. As an open system, man communicates with his environment through information flows and communications media. One’s physical environment, whether through electromagnetic, gravitational, acoustic, or other effects, can cause a change in the psycho-physiological condition of an organism, in Solntsev’s opinion. Change of this sort could directly affect the mental state and consciousness of a computer operator. This would not be electronic war or information warfare in the traditional sense, but rather in a nontraditional and non-US sense. It might encompass, for example, a computer modified to become a weapon by using its energy output to emit acoustics that debilitate the operator. It also might encompass, as indicated below, futuristic weapons http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/98spring/thomas.htm (3 of 9)11/4/2005 11:43:44 PM PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 aimed against man’s “open system.” Solntsev also examined the problem of “information noise,” which creates a dense shield between a person and external reality. This noise may manifest itself in the form of signals, messages, images, or other items of information. The main target of this noise would be the consciousness of a person or a group of people. Behavior modification could be one objective of information noise; another could be to upset an individual’s mental capacity to such an extent as to prevent reaction to any stimulus. Solntsev concludes that all levels of a person’s psyche (subconscious, conscious, and “superconscious”) are potential targets for destabilization. According to Solntsev, one computer virus capable of affecting a person’s psyche is Russian Virus 666. It manifests itself in every 25th frame of a visual display, where it produces a combination of colors that allegedly put computer operators into a trance. The subconscious perception of the new pattern eventually results in arrhythmia of the heart. Other Russian computer specialists, not just Solntsev, talk openly about this “25th frame effect” and its ability to subtly manage a computer user’s perceptions. The purpose of this technique is to inject a thought into the viewer’s subconscious. It may remind some of the subliminal advertising controversy in the United States in the late 1950s. US Views on “Wonder Weapons”: Altering the Data-Processing Ability of the Body What technologies have been examined by the United States that possess the potential to disrupt the data- processing capabilities of the human organism? The 7 July 1997 issue of U.S. News and World Report described several of them designed, among other things, to vibrate the insides of humans, stun or nauseate them, put them to sleep, heat them up, or knock them down with a shock wave.[9] The technologies include dazzling lasers that can force the pupils to close; acoustic or sonic frequencies that cause the hair cells in the inner ear to vibrate and cause motion sickness, vertigo, and nausea, or frequencies that resonate the internal organs causing pain and spasms; and shock waves with the potential to knock down humans or airplanes and which can be mixed with pepper spray or chemicals. [10] With modification, these technological applications can have many uses. Acoustic weapons, for example, could be adapted for use as acoustic rifles or as acoustic fields that, once established, might protect facilities, assist in hostage rescues, control riots, or clear paths for convoys. These waves, which can penetrate buildings, offer a host of opportunities for military and law enforcement officials. Microwave weapons, by stimulating the peripheral nervous system, can heat up the body, induce epileptic-like seizures, or cause cardiac arrest. Low-frequency radiation affects the electrical activity of the brain and can cause flu-like symptoms and nausea. Other projects sought to induce or prevent sleep, or to affect the signal from the motor cortex portion of the brain, overriding voluntary muscle movements. The latter are referred to as pulse wave weapons, and the Russian government has reportedly bought over 100,000 copies of the “Black Widow” version of them.[11] However, this view of “wonder weapons” was contested by someone who should understand them. http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/98spring/thomas.htm (4 of 9)11/4/2005 11:43:44 PM PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 Brigadier General Larry Dodgen, Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Policy and Missions, wrote a letter to the editor about the “numerous inaccuracies” in the U.S. News and World Report article that “misrepresent the Department of Defense’s views.”[12] Dodgen’s primary complaint seemed to have been that the magazine misrepresented the use of these technologies and their value to the armed forces. He also underscored the US intent to work within the scope of any international treaty concerning their application, as well as plans to abandon (or at least redesign) any weapon for which countermeasures are known. One is left with the feeling, however, that research in this area is intense. A concern not mentioned by Dodgen is that other countries or non-state actors may not be bound by the same constraints. It is hard to imagine someone with a greater desire than terrorists to get their hands on these technologies. “Psycho-terrorism” could be the next buzzword. Russian Views on “Psychotronic War” The term “psycho-terrorism” was coined by Russian writer N. Anisimov of the Moscow Anti- Psychotronic Center. According to Anisimov, psychotronic weapons are those that act to “take away a part of the information which is stored in a man’s brain. It is sent to a computer, which reworks it to the level needed for those who need to control the man, and the modified information is then reinserted into the brain.” These weapons are used against the mind to induce hallucinations, sickness, mutations in human cells, “zombification,” or even death. Included in the arsenal are VHF generators, X-rays, ultrasound, and radio waves. Russian army Major I. Chernishev, writing in the military journal Orienteer in February 1997, asserted that “psy” weapons are under development all over the globe. Specific types of weapons noted by Chernishev (not all of which have prototypes) were: ● A psychotronic generator, which produces a powerful electromagnetic emanation capable of being sent through telephone lines, TV, radio networks, supply pipes, and incandescent lamps. ● An autonomous generator, a device that operates in the 10-150 Hertz band, which at the 10-20 Hertz band forms an infrasonic oscillation that is destructive to all living creatures. ● A nervous system generator, designed to paralyze the central nervous systems of insects, which could have the same applicability to humans. ● Ultrasound emanations, which one institute claims to have developed. Devices using ultrasound emanations are supposedly capable of carrying out bloodless internal operations without leaving a mark on the skin. They can also, according to Chernishev, be used to kill. ● Noiseless cassettes. Chernishev claims that the Japanese have developed the ability to place infra- low frequency voice patterns over music, patterns that are detected by the subconscious. Russians claim to be using similar “bombardments” with computer programming to treat alcoholism or smoking. ● The 25th-frame effect, alluded to above, a technique wherein each 25th frame of a movie reel or film footage contains a message that is picked up by the subconscious. This technique, if it works, could possibly be used to curb smoking and alcoholism, but it has wider, more sinister applications if used on a TV audience or a computer operator. ● Psychotropics, defined as medical preparations used to induce a trance, euphoria, or depression. Referred to as “slow-acting mines,” they could be slipped into the food of a politician or into the water supply of an entire city. Symptoms include headaches, noises, voices or commands in the http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/98spring/thomas.htm (5 of 9)11/4/2005 11:43:44 PM PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 brain, dizziness, pain in the abdominal cavities, cardiac arrhythmia, or even the destruction of the cardiovascular system. There is confirmation from US researchers that this type of study is going on. Dr. Janet Morris, coauthor of The Warrior’s Edge, reportedly went to the Moscow Institute of Psychocorrelations in 1991. There she was shown a technique pioneered by the Russian Department of Psycho-Correction at Moscow Medical Academy in which researchers electronically analyze the human mind in order to influence it. They input subliminal command messages, using key words transmitted in “white noise” or music. Using an infra-sound, very low frequency transmission, the acoustic psycho-correction message is transmitted via bone conduction.[13] In summary, Chernishev noted that some of the militarily significant aspects of the “psy” weaponry deserve closer research, including the following nontraditional methods for disrupting the psyche of an individual: ● ESP research: determining the properties and condition of objects without ever making contact with them and “reading” peoples’ thoughts ● Clairvoyance research: observing objects that are located just beyond the world of the visible– used for intelligence purposes ● Telepathy research: transmitting thoughts over a distance–used for covert operations ● Telekinesis research: actions involving the manipulation of physical objects using thought power, causing them to move or break apart–used against command and control systems, or to disrupt the functioning of weapons of mass destruction ● Psychokinesis research: interfering with the thoughts of individuals, on either the strategic or tactical level While many US scientists undoubtedly question this research, it receives strong support in Moscow. The point to underscore is that individuals in Russia (and other countries as well) believe these means can be used to attack or steal from the data-processing unit of the human body. Solntsev’s research, mentioned above, differs slightly from that of Chernishev. For example, Solntsev is more interested in hardware capabilities, specifically the study of the information-energy source associated with the computer-operator interface. He stresses that if these energy sources can be captured and integrated into the modern computer, the result will be a network worth more than “a simple sum of its components.” Other researchers are studying high-frequency generators (those designed to stun the psyche with high frequency waves such as electromagnetic, acoustic, and gravitational); the manipulation or reconstruction of someone’s thinking through planned measures such as reflexive control processes; the use of psychotronics, parapsychology, bioenergy, bio fields, and psychoenergy; [14] and unspecified “special operations” or anti-ESP training. The last item is of particular interest. According to a Russian TV broadcast, the strategic rocket forces have begun anti-ESP training to ensure that no outside force can take over command and control http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/98spring/thomas.htm (6 of 9)11/4/2005 11:43:44 PM PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 functions of the force. That is, they are trying to construct a firewall around the heads of the operators. Conclusions At the end of July 1997, planners for Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration ’97 “focused on technologies that enhance real-time collaborative planning in a multinational task force of the type used in Bosnia and in Operation Desert Storm. The JWID ’97 network, called the Coalition Wide-Area Network (CWAN), is the first military network that allows allied nations to participate as full and equal partners.”[15] The demonstration in effect was a trade fair for private companies to demonstrate their goods; defense ministries got to decide where and how to spend their money wiser, in many cases without incurring the cost of prototypes. It is a good example of doing business better with less. Technologies demonstrated included:[16] ● Soldiers using laptop computers to drag cross-hairs over maps to call in airstrikes ● Soldiers carrying beepers and mobile phones rather than guns ● Generals tracking movements of every unit, counting the precise number of shells fired around the globe, and inspecting real-time damage inflicted on an enemy, all with multicolored graphics [17] Every account of this exercise emphasized the ability of systems to process data and provide information feedback via the power invested in their microprocessors. The ability to affect or defend the data- processing capability of the human operators of these systems was never mentioned during the exercise; it has received only slight attention during countless exercises over the past several years. The time has come to ask why we appear to be ignoring the operators of our systems. Clearly the information operator, exposed before a vast array of potentially immobilizing weapons, is the weak spot in any nation’s military assets. There are few international agreements protecting the individual soldier, and these rely on the good will of the combatants. Some nations, and terrorists of every stripe, don’t care about such agreements. This article has used the term data-processing to demonstrate its importance to ascertaining what so- called information warfare and information operations are all about. Data-processing is the action this nation and others need to protect. Information is nothing more than the output of this activity. As a result, the emphasis on information-related warfare terminology (“information dominance,” “information carousel”) that has proliferated for a decade does not seem to fit the situation before us. In some cases the battle to affect or protect data-processing elements pits one mechanical system against another. In other cases, mechanical systems may be confronted by the human organism, or vice versa, since humans can usually shut down any mechanical system with the flip of a switch. In reality, the game is about protecting or affecting signals, waves, and impulses that can influence the data-processing elements of systems, computers, or people. We are potentially the biggest victims of information warfare, because we have neglected to protect ourselves. Our obsession with a “system of systems,” “information dominance,” and other such terminology is most http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/98spring/thomas.htm (7 of 9)11/4/2005 11:43:44 PM PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 likely a leading cause of our neglect of the human factor in our theories of information warfare. It is time to change our terminology and our conceptual paradigm. Our terminology is confusing us and sending us in directions that deal primarily with the hardware, software, and communications components of the data-processing spectrum. We need to spend more time researching how to protect the humans in our data management structures. Nothing in those structures can be sustained if our operators have been debilitated by potential adversaries or terrorists who–right now–may be designing the means to disrupt the human component of our carefully constructed notion of a system of systems. NOTES 1. I. Chernishev, “Can Rulers Make `Zombies’ and Control the World?” Orienteer, February 1997, pp. 58-62. 2. Douglas Pasternak, “Wonder Weapons,” U.S. News and World Report, 7 July 1997, pp. 38-46. 3. Ibid., p. 38. 4. FM 101-5-1, Operational Terms and Graphics, 30 September 1997, p. 1-82. 5. Joint Pub 3-13.1, Joint Doctrine for Command and Control Warfare (C2W), 7 February 1996, p. v. 6. The American Heritage Dictionary (2d College Ed.; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), p. 660, definition 4. 7. Denis Snezhnyy, “Cybernetic Battlefield & National Security,” Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, No. 10, 15-21 March 1997, p. 2. 8. Victor I. Solntsev, “Information War and Some Aspects of a Computer Operator’s Defense,” talk given at an Infowar Conference in Washington, D.C., September 1996, sponsored by the National Computer Security Association. Information in this section is based on notes from Dr. Solntsev’s talk. 9. Pasternak, p. 40. 10. Ibid., pp. 40-46. 11. Ibid. 12. Larry Dodgen, “Nonlethal Weapons,” U.S. News and World Report, 4 August 1997, p. 5. http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/98spring/thomas.htm (8 of 9)11/4/2005 11:43:44 PM PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Spring 1998 13. “Background on the Aviary,” Nexus Magazine, downloaded from the Internet on 13 July 1997 from www.execpc.com/vjentpr/nexusavi.html, p.7. 14. Aleksandr Cherkasov, “The Front Where Shots Aren’t Fired,” Orienteer, May 1995, p. 45. This article was based on information in the foreign and Russian press, according to the author, making it impossible to pinpoint what his source was for this reference. 15. Bob Brewin, “DOD looks for IT `golden nuggets,'” Federal Computer Week, 28 July 1997, p. 31, as taken from the Earlybird Supplement, 4 August 1997, p. B 17. 16. Oliver August, “Zap! Hard day at the office for NATO’s laptop warriors,” The Times, 28 July 1997, as taken from the Earlybird Supplement, 4 August 1997, p. B 16. 17. Ibid. Lieutenant Colonel Timothy L. Thomas (USA Ret.) is an analyst at the Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Recently he has written extensively on the Russian view of information operations and on current Russian military-political issues. During his military career he served in the 82d Airborne Division and was the Department Head of Soviet Military-Political Affairs at the US Army’s Russian Institute in Garmisch, Germany. Go to Spring issue Table of Contents. Go to Cumulative Article Index Go to Parameters home page. Reviewed 25 February 1998. Please send comments or corrections to Parameters@carlisle.army.mil Ms. Adams

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