DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY. THE BIOEFFECTS OF SELECTED NON LETHAL WEAPONShttp://www.slavery.org.uk/Bioeffects_of_Selected_Non-Lethal_Weapons.pdf

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY. THE BIOEFFECTS OF SELECTED NON LETHAL WEAPONS
http://www.slavery.org.uk/Bioeffects_of_Selected_Non-Lethal_Weapons.pdf
Freedomof Infomation/ PrivacyOfficeNft,DonaldFriedman ConfidentialLegal Correspondence ll25 Thid Steet Napa,Califomia94559-3015DearMr. Friedman:References:uxtllDD E P A R T M E NO TF T H EA R M YtlAltS Affy laTttucl|lct Af,o ffqjtnyttDof foircloic!coina o ot trFoRxrlox/Fiw CaofftcEG.Maao€,[aivtaxoao75t5t95a. YourFreedomof InformationAct (FOIA)requesdt atedMay 25,2006,to theDepartment oftheAfmy,FreedomofInformation/PrivacAyctDivision(DAFOIA/PADIV),forall documentpsertainingto themicrowaveauditoryeffect,microwavehearingeffecr,Freyeffect,a r t i f i c i a lt e l e p a t h ya, n d / o ra n y d e v i c e / w e a p ownh i c h u s e sa n d . / ocr a u s e s s u c he f f e c t ;a n d a n y covertorundiscloseudseofhlpnosis.OnSeptembe5r,2006,theDA FOIA/PADIV refeneda copyof yourrcquesto thisoffica. Yow requeswt asreceivedon Septembe1r1,2006.b. OurletterofSeptembe1r3,2006,infomingyouofthesearchforrecordsatanotheerlement ofour commandandwereunabletocomplywiththe20-daystatutorytimelimit in processrng yourrequest.As notedin ourletter,thesearchasbeencompletedwith anotheer lemenot f thiscommand andtherecordhasbe€nretumedtothisofficeforourreviewanddirectresponsteoyou.W e h a v e c o m p l e t e da m a n d a t o r dy e c l a s s i f i c a t i or en v i e w i n a c c o r d a n c we i t h E x e c u t i v eO r d e r (EO)12958a, samendedA. saresultofthisreview,ithasbeendeterminetdhattheArmy informationo longerwarrantsecurityclassificatiopnrotectionandis releasablteo you. A copy ofthe recordis enclosedfor youruse.Feesfor processinygourrcquesat rewaived.DE8182000
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SEEffif iieFenArBioeffectsof SelectedNonlethal Weapons(fn1)ThisaddendumtotheNonlethaTl echnologies*Worldwid(NeGIC-I147-101-98s)tudy a d d r e s s ei ns s u m m a r y s, o m e o f t h e m o s t o f t e n a s k e dq u e s t i o n os f n o n l e t h a l w e a p o n s technologyth, eph)siologicarlesponseosbservedin clinicalsettingsofthe biophysical couplingandsusceptibilitoyfpersonnetlononlethael ffectsweaponsT.heseresults identifyandvalidatesomeaspectosfmaturingnonlethatlechnologietshatmaylikelybe encounteredor usedasnonlethaleffectorsin thefutureincludins:. Laserandotherlight phenomena. . Radioftequencdyirectedenergy..Awal bioeffects.Thestudyofelectromagnetficieldsandtheirinfluenceonbiologicasl ystemsis incraaiingrapidly.Muchofthiswo* istakingplacebecausoefhealthconcemsF.or examplei,ncreasecdoncemhasarisenregardingtheeffectsofoperatorexposureto the electromagnetficeldsassociatewdith short-wavediathermydevicesh, ighpower microwaveovensr,ada!systemsm, agneticresonanciemagingunits,etc.In addition, muchconcemhasarisenaboutextremelylow frequenc(y60Hz powerfrequency) eleakicandmagneticfieldsthatoriginatefiom high-voltagkeansmissiolnines,indust[ial e q u i p m e n at , n d r e s i d e n t i a a l p p l i a n c e sB . o t h o c c u p a t i o n a a l n d r e s i d e n t i a l l o [ g – t e r m exposurheavebeenthefocusofepidemiologicasltudiesT. hestudieshavesuggested possibleadverseffectsonhumanhealth(e.9.,cancerr,cproductione,tc.).Laboratoryr e s e a r c i h s s t i l l b e i n g p u r s u e d t o i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e m e c h a n i s m o s f i n t e r a c t i o n H. o w e v e r , otherthanthermalheatingfor microwavefrequenciest,hereis no yet agreed-uponm e c h a n i s mo f a c t i o n . A s a c o [ s e q u e n c eo , u r k n o w l e d g eb a s e i s d e v e l o p e ed n t i r e l y w i t h p h e n o m e n o l o g i c o a b l s e r v a t i o n Bs . e c a u s eo f t h i s f a c t , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t h o w norithermabliologicaleffectsmaydiflbrllom oneexposuremodalitytoanother.Itis especialldyifficult,becausoefthesmalldatabaseforfastpulsest,opredictbiological effectsthat might be associatedwith high-powerpulsesofextremely shortduration.Thereis,howevera, growingperceptionthatmicrowaveirradiationandexposureto low frequencfyieldscanbeinvolvedin awiderangeofbiologicalinteractionsS.ome investigatorsareevenbeginningto describesimilaritiesbetweenmicrowaveirradiation anddrugsregardingtheir effectson biological systems.For exarnple,somesuggesthat powerdensityandspecificabsorptionrateof microwaveirradiationmaybethoughtofas analogoustotheconcentrationofthe injectionsolutionandthedosageofdrugEEGRADBbUNACsjsT$EDP,.ff c.BY US.AINSCOMFOIAA AUh Psra.’. t02 DOD 52eii.tRt
admin;stratiorne,spectivelyC.learly,theeffectsofmicrcwavesonbraintissue, chemistry,andfunctionsarccomplexandselective.Observationsofbody weightand behaviorrevealedthatruts,exposedrmdercertainconditionsto microwaves,eatand drinklessh, avesmallerbodyweightasaresultofnonspecificstressmediatedtbrough the centralnenous systemandhavedecreasedmotor activity. It hasbeerlfoundthat exposureof the animalsto onemodality of radiofiequencyelectromagneticenergy substantiallydecreasesaggtessivebehaviorduringexposureH.owever,theopposite effectsofmicrowavesi,n increasintghemobilityandaggressioonfanimals,hasalso beenshownforadifferentexposuremodalityR. ecenptublishedataimplicates microwaveassafactorrelatedtoadeficitinspatiaml emoryfunctionA. similartlpeof effectwasobservedwith exposureto a “resonancteuned”extremelylow frequency magneticfield.Thus,thedatabaseis repletewith phenomenologicoablservationosf biologicasl ystems”affectedb” y exposureto electromagneteicnergy(.Thefactthata biologicasl ystemrespondtso anextemailnfluencedoesnotautomaticallnyoreasily truslateto thesuggestioonfadverseinfluenceonhealth.T) heobjectiveofthe present studywasto identifyinformationftomthisdevelopingunderstandinogfelectomagnetic e f f e c t so n a n i m a l s y s t e m st h a t c o u l d b e c o u p l e dw i t h h u m a nb i o l o g i c a sl u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s . SituationwshcrcthcintersectioonfthesetwodomainscoexisDt rovideoossibilitiefsor useinnonlethaalpplications.I[capacitatingEffect:MicrowaveHeatitrgBodyheatingtomimicafeveristhenatuleoftheR.FincapacitationT.heobjectiveisto provideheatinginaverycontrolledwaysothatthebodyreceivensearlyuniformheating a n dn o o r g a n sa r ed a m a g e dC. o r et e m p e r a t w easp p r o x i m a t e l4y1 oC a r ec o n s i d e r etdo b e adequateA.t suchtemperaturaeconsiderablcyhangedemeanowr ill takeplacewith the individualM. ostp€opleu, nderfeve!conditionsb,ecomemuchlessaggrcssives;ome peoplemaybecomemoreinitable.Thesubjectivesensationpsroducedby thisbuildupof heatarefar moreunpleasanthanthoseaccompanyingfever.In hlperthermiaall the effectorprocessesarestminedto theutrnost,whereasin fevertheyaxenot. It is alsop o s s i b l et h a t m i c r o w a v eh , ? e r t h e r m i a( e v e nw i t h o n l y a 1 ‘ C i n c r e a s ei n b r a i n temperaturem)aydisruptworkingmemory,thusresultingindisorientation.BiologicalTsrgeUNormalFunctious,/DiseaSsteateThetemperatureof warm-blooded(homeothermic)animalslike thehumanrcmans pnctically unchangedalthoughthesurroundingtemperaturemayvaryconsiderably.The nomal humanbodytempentue recordedftomthemouthisusuallygivenas37′ C,with theiectaltempemtueonedegreehigher.Variationbetweenindividualsistlpically between35.8′ C and37.8′ C orally.Variatiorcalsooccurin anyoneindividuai throughouthe day-a differenceof l 0’ C or even2.0oC occurringbetweenthe maximumin thelateallemoonor earlyevedng,andtheminimumbetween3 and5 o’clockin themoming.Strenuoums usculaer x€rcisecausesa temporarryisein body temperatuethatisproportionaltotheseverityofthe exercise;thelevelmaygoashighas 40.0.c.
Extremeheatstress,suchthatthebodyscapacityfor heatlossis exceededc,ausesa pathologicalincreasein thetemperatureofthe body.Thesubjectivesensationsprcduced by thisbuildupofheat arefarmoreunpleasanthanthoseaccompanyingfever.In hyperthermiaall theeffectorprocessesarestained to theutmost,whereasin feversthey arenot. The limiting temperaturefor survival,however,is the samein both cases–abody temperatureof42o C. For briefperiods, peoplehavebeenknown to survivetemperatures ashighas43′ C.In prolongedh)?erthermiaw, ith temperatureosver40′ C to 41. C, thebminsuffers severedamagethatusuallyleadsto death.PeriodsofhlTrerthermiaareaccompaniedby cerebraledemathatdamagenewons,andthevictim exhibitsdisorientation,delirium,and convulsionsT.hissFdromeispopularlyreferredtoassunstroke,or heatstroke, dependingonthecircumstancesW.henthehyperthermiaisprolonged,braindamageinterfereswith thecentralthermoregulatorymechanismsI.n particular,sweatsecretion ceasess,othattheconditionis furtherexacerbated.Mechanismto Producethe DesiredEffectsThisconcepbtuildsonabout40yearsofexperiencewiththeheatingeffectsof microwavesN.umeroustudieshavebeenperfomedonanimalsto identify characteristicosfimportanceto theunderstandinogfenergydepositionin animalsA. s a resultof thephysicst,herelationshibpetweenthesizeofthe animalandthewavelength ofthe radiofrequenceynergyis mostimportantI.n fact,thehumanexposureguidelinesto radioftequencyradiationaredesignedaroundknowledgeofthe differential absorptionasa functiorof fiequencyandbodysize.Thechallengeis to minimizethetimeto effect while causingnopermanentinjury to anyorganor thetotalbodyandto optimizethe equipmenftunctionT. heorientationoftheincidentenergywithrespecttotheorientation ofthe animalis alsoimportant.In astudyofthe effectofRF radiationonbodytempelaturein theRhesusmonkey,a freqtency(225MHz) is purposelychos€nthatdepositsenergydeepwithin thebodyof theanimal.A dos€rateof 10W,&gcausedth€bodytemperaturetoincreaseto42oCina shortime(10-15min),To avoidineversibleadverseffectst,h€exposurcwas terminatedwhena temperatureof 42oC wasreachedA. lower doserateof 5 W,&g causedthetemperaturteo increasteo 41.5oC in lessthan2 hours.Thereversiblenarure ofthis responsewasdemonstratedby therapiddrcp in bodytemperaturewhenRF exposurewasteminatedbeforeacritical temperatureof42o C wasreached.It is estimatedfor ratsthattheabso6edthresholdconrulsivedoseliesbetween22 a!|td35!/g for exposuredwationsftom lessthar a secondto l5 minutes.For 30-pinute exposurc,the absorbedthresholddosefor decreasein enduranceis near20 J/g, the thresholdfor work stoppageapproximately9J/g,andthethresholdfor workpertubationrangesliom 5 to 7 yg. All ofthe abovemeasurese,xcepct onvulsions,incapacition.A roughestimateof thepowerrequiredto heata humanfor this technologyis on the orderof l0 Wkg givenabout15to 30minutesoftargetactivationA. ctualpowerlevelsarct)?esofnonlethal
dependon climaticfactors,clothing,andotherconsiderationsthataffecttheheatloss AomtheindividualconcemedA. methodforexpressingdoserateintermsofbody surfacearea(i.e., wattsper squaremeter)ratherthanbody mass(i.e., wattsper kilogam) wouldpemit amorereliablepredictionofthermaleffectsacrcsspeciesH.owevert,here axelargeuncertaintiesin theability to extrapolatethermorcgulatoryeffectsin laboratory animalsto thosein humanbeings.Thistechnologyisanadaptationoftechnologywhichhasbeenaroundformanyyears.lt is well knownthatmicrowavescanbeusedto heatobjects.Not only is microwave technologuysedtocookfoods,butit isalsousedasadirectedsourceofheatinginmany industriaal pplicationsIt.waseventhesubjecot fthe Proposal’, years”Pound afew agoin whichtheideawastoprovideresidentiahleatingtopeoplen, otlivingspaceB. ecauseoftheapparentlysafenatureofbody heatingusingmicrowavetechniquesa, varietyof innovativeusesofEM energyfor humanapplicationsarebeingexplored.Thenonlethal applicationwouldembodyahighlysophisticatemdicrowaveassemblythatcanbeuscdto prcjectmicrowaveisn orderto providea conholledheatingofpersonsT. hiscontrolledheatingwill raisethecoretemperaturoefthe individualstoapredetermined leveltomimicahighfeverwith theint€ntofgainingapsychological/capability edgeontheenemyw, hilenotinflictingdeadlyforce,Theconcepot fheatingis straightforwardth;e challengeistoidgntifyandproducethecorrecmt ixofliequenciesandpowerlevels neededto do the remoteheatingwhile not injuring specificorgansin the individuals illuminatedby thebeam.A varietyoffactorscontributeto theattractiveneossfthis nonlethaltechrologyF. irst,iti s b a s e d o n a w e l l – k n o w n e f f e c t , h e a t i n g E. v e r y h u m a n i s s u b j e c t t o t h e e f f e c t s o f h e a t i n g ; thereforei,t wouldhavea predictabilityratingof 100%.Thetimeto onsetcanprobably beengine€retdobetweel15and30minutesh; owevert,imingisthesubjecot faddilional researctho maximizeheatingwhileminimizingadverseffeatsof localizedheating.the onsetcanbeslowenoughand,/oorfsuchfrequenctyo beunrecogniz€d person(s)by the beinginadiatedS. afetyto innocentcsouldbeenhancebdy theapplicationandadditionaldevelopme[tof advancedsensortechnologiesl.ocapacitationtimecouldbeextendedto almostanydesiredperiodconsistentwith safety.(GivensuitableR&D, temperatureor othervital signscouldb€monitorcdremotely,andtemperaturecouldbemaintainedata minimum effectivepoint).Tim€to OnsetThetimeto onseits a fulction ofthe powerlevelbeingused.Carefullymonitored uniformheatingcouldprobablytakeplacein betweenl5 and30minutesT. imeroorcet couldbereducedbutwith increasedrisk of adverseeffects.Minimum time is deDendent onthepowerlevelofthe equipmentandtheefficiencyofthe aimingdevice.Duration of EffectAssumingthattheheatingis donecarefully,reversalof elevatedbody temperaturewould beginassoonasthesourceofheat is removed.
TunabilityThisconceptistunablein thatanyruteofheating,uptothemaximumcapacityof the souce, may be obtained.Thus it is suitablefor usein a gradualforce or ‘,rheostatic’, approachI.fthe situationallows,andthesourceissufficientlypowerful,thereisthe possibilityto usethistechnologyin a lethalmodeaswell.Prolongedbodytemperature above43’Cisalmostcertaintoresultinpermanendtarnagetothebrainanddeath.DistributionofHuman Sensitivitiesto DesiredEffectsNo reasonhasbeenidentifiedto suggesthatanyonewouldbeimmuneto this technology.Individualswith compromisedthermoregulatorymechanismswould be susceptiblewith a lower incidentenergydensity.This would includepeoplewith orgalnc damageto theh,?othalamus,thepartofthe brainthatintegatestheautonomic mechanismwshichcontrolheatlossaswellaspeoplewithcompromisedofheatloss(e.g.,respirationw, aterbalancee, tc.).inhomogeleousc,eftainorgansare,byvirtueoftheirsizeandgeometrym, oreeasilycoupledwithoneradiofrequencwyavelengththananotherT.herefore, permanent to avoiddamagetothesusp€cotrtoinnocenbtystardersit,maybenecessaryto varytheThetechnologienseededfor thethermatlechnologcyoncepat rerelativelywell d€velopebdecausoeftheknownbiophysicaml echanismth,euniversaslusceptibilitoyf humansto themechanismofheating,andbecausoefa well developedt € c h n o l o g by a s e for theproductionofradiofrequencyladiation.Becausethehuma.nbodyisfrequenctyo avoidlocalizedheatingandconsequendtamageto anyorgan,Additionally, it will benecessaryto avoidtheconditionsthoughtto beassociatedwith theinductionof cataractsT.hus,whilethetechnologyofmicrowaveheatingingenerailsmatule, adaptatioansanonlethatlechnologywill rcquiresophisticatedbiophysicaclalculationks) identifytheproperegimenofmicrowavellequencieasndintensitiesit; will alsobcnecessaryto optimizeexistinghardwareto meetthebioph,sicalrequirements.PossibleItrflu€oc€or Subject(s)Ifthe technologyfunctionsapproximatelyasenvisioned,thetargetedindividual couldbe ircapacitatewdithinl5 to30minutesB. ecaustehistechnologiysfocusedonarelatively slow onset,it shouldonly be usedin situationswherespeedis not important.The very uncomfortablneatureofa highbodytemperaturme aybeusefulin negotiationosrp o s s i b l yf o r c o n t r o l l i n gc r o w d s I. t w o u l d b e e q u a l l yu s e f u lo n s i n g l ep e r s o n so t c r o w d s . Evidencealsoindicatesadisruptionofworking memorythusdisorientationmayoccur becausoefall inabilityto consolidatme emoryofthe recen(tminutesp)ast.TechnologicaSl tatusof Generator/AimingDeviceEquipmentneededto explorethis conceptin the laboratoryis availabletoday.Designand constructionofthe RF/microwavegenemtorwill dependontheconstraintsposedbythe calculationsp,otentialgenerationdevices,alldenergy-directingstructuresA. varietyofsomaticfeatures
optlonsexistfor bothoftheseequipmennteedsT. heuseof advancedfrequencyand modulation-agiRleFgeneratioanndamplificationcircuitrywill berequiredto o”scss fully thefrequency/power/timenvelopeofRF heatingprofilesrequir;d.Althoughmuch equipmentis cornmerciallyavailable,it is likely that customhadware andsoftwarewill benecessarybecauseavailableequipmenthasnotbeendesignedwith theneedfor frequ€ncy/intensilyvariability, which w.ill probablybe neededfor safetypurposesI.n addition,thedesignof antennasandotherenergy-directingstructueswili almost certainlyinvolveuniqueconfigurations.Sincethistechnologyutilizesradiofiequency energyi,t canbedefeatebdytheuseof shieldingprovidedbyconductivebarierslikemetalor metalscreen. IrcapacitatingEffect:MicrowaveHearirg Microwavehearingis a phenomenon,buzzing,ticking, hissing,or knockingsoundsthat originatewithin or imrnediatelybehindthehead.Thereis no soundpropagatilgthroughtheair like nomal sound.Thistechnologiyn itscrudesf!ormcouldbeusedtodistracitldividuals:ifrefined.it couldalsobeusedtocommunicatweithhostageosrhostagetakeNdirectlybyMorsecodeor othermessagseystemsp,ossibly€venby voiaecommudcation.BiologicalTarget/NormslFunctiotrs/Disease StateThistechnologmy akesuse phenomenonofa firstdescribeddescdbebdy humanobservem. as.thesensationosfin theliteratureover30 vears ago.Different)?esofsoundswerehearddependinogn theparticularsofthe pulsecharacteristicsV.af,iousexperimentswer€performedonhumansandlaboratorvanimalsexploringtheoriginofthis phenomenon.At thistime,virtuallyall investigatorwshohrves t u d i e d _ t hp eh e l o m e n o n n o w a c c e p t t h e r m o e l a s t ei c x p a n s i o on f t h e b r a i n , – t h ep r e s s u r c waveofwhichisrcceivedandprocessebdythecochleamr icrophonicsystem,iohctlrc mechanismofacousticperceptioonfshortpulsesofRFenergyO. nestudy(in1975)usilg humanvolunteersid, entiliedthethresholdenergyofmicrowave-auditorycsponscs inhumansasafunctionofpulsewidthfor2450MHzradioftequenceynergyi.t isalso-‘After thephenomenonwasdiscovercd,severalmechanismsweresuggestedto explainthehearingofpulsedRF fields.Thermoelasteicxpansiown ithinthebrainin rcsponseto RFfoundthatabout40J/cmzincidentenergydensityperpulsewai required. Mechanismto ProducetheDesiredEffectspulseswasflrststudiedanddemonstntedininertmatedalsfid wasDroposedasthe rnechanismofhearingofpulsedRFfields.A presstlrewaveisgeneritedinmostsolid andliquidmaterialsbyapulseofRI energy–paressurwcavethatissevemolrdersof magnitudelargerin amplitudethanthatresultilg from radiationpressureor from elecnoslrictivleorcesT. hecharacteristicosfthe field-inducedcoihlearmicroohorurcn guineapigsandcatst.herelationshoipfpulseduralionandltu-esholpdh.vsicrimeasuremenitnswaterandin tissue-simulatinmgaterials,aswell asnumeroustheoreticalcalculations-allpointtothermoelasticexpansionasthemechanismofthe hearins Dhenomenon.
Scientistshavedeterminedthe thresholdenergylevel for humanobserversexposedto pulsed2450-MHzfields(0.5-to32micrcnpulsewidths).Theyfoundthat,regardlesosf thepeakofthe powerdensityandthepulsewidth, theper-pulsethresholdfoia normal subjecitsneax20mJ/kg.Theavemgelevationofbraintemperaturejust-perceptible6. pulsewasestimatetdobeabout5xl0 C.a s s o c i a t e wd i t h aTime to OnsetThephysicalnatureofthis themoelasticexpansiondictatesthatthesoundsareheardas theindividuapl ulsesareabsorbedT.hus,theeffectisimmediate(withinmilliseconds). Humanshavebeenexposedto R.Fenergythat resultedin the Droductionof sounds.Durationof EffectMicrowavehearinglastsonly aslong astheexposure.Thereis no residualeffectafier cessatioonfRF energy.TurabilityTh€phenomenonis tunablein thatthecharacteristicsoundsandintansitiesofthosesoundsdependonthecharacteristicsofthe RF energyasdeliveredB. ecausteheftequencyofthe soundheardis dep€ndent pulseon the chamcteristicsofthe RF energy, to the wherewordscould behansmittedtobeheardlikethespokenwod, excepthatit couldonlyboheardwithina person’hsead.In oneexperiment, communicatioonfthewordsfromonetotenusing”speechmodulatedm” icrowavenergywassuccessfulldyemonstrated. Microphonensextto thep€rsonexperiencintghevoicecouldnotpickupthesoundA. dditionadl evelonncnt ofthiswouldopenupawiderangeofpossibilities.DistributiotrofHuman SeDsitlvities toDesir€dEffectsBecausethephenomenonactsdirectly on cochlearprccesses,the thermoelasticpressurewavesploducesoundsofvarying Aequency.Many ofthe testsrun to evaluatgthe phenomenonproducedsoundsin the 5 kHz rangeandhigher.Becausehumansarekno.wn to experiencaewiderangeofhearinglossdueto cochleadr arnageit, is possiblethat somepeoplecanhearRF inducedsoundsthat otherswith high &equencyhearingloss cannotT. hus,thereisalikelyrangeofsensitivity,primarilybasedonthet)?eofpulse andtheconditionofthe cochleaB. ilateradl estructioonfthe cochleahasbeen demonstxatetdo abolishall RF-inducedauditorystimuli.RecoYery/SafetyHumanshavebeensubjectedto this phenomenonfor many years.The energydeposrnon requiredtoproducethiseffectissosmallthatit isnotconsideredhazardous expenmentationwheninvestigatingresponsesat thejust-perceptiblelevels.it seemspossiblethatthistechnologcyouldbedeveloped point11
PossibleInfluenceon Subject(s)Applicationofthe microwavehearingtechnologycouldfacilitateapdvatemessage transmissionI.t may be usefulto provide a disruptiv€conditionto a personnot awaxeof thetechnology.Not only might it bedisruptiveto thesenseofhearing, it couldbe psychologicallydevastatingif onesuddenlyheard”voiceswithin one’shead.”T e c h n o l o g i c a Sl t a t u s o f G e t r e r a t o r / A i m i n gD e v i c eThistechnologyrequiresnoextrapolationtoestimateitsusefulnessM.icrowaveenergy canbe appliedat a distance,andthe appropriatetechnologycanbe adaptedftom existing radarunits.Aiming deviceslikewise areavailablebut for specialcircumstanceswhich requireextremespecificity,theremaybeaneedforadditionaldevelopmentE.xteme directionaslpecificitywouldberequircdtohansmitamessagteoasinglehostage sunoundedbyhiscaptorsS. ignalscanbetransmittedlongdistance(shuDdredosfmeters) usingcurrentechrologyI.nngerdistanceasndmoresophisticatesdignaltlpeswillr e q u i r em o r e b u l k y e q u i p m e n tb, u t i t s e e m sp o s s i b l et o t r a n s m i st o m et , ? e o f s i g n a l sa t closerangesusingman-potablequipment.Range Theeffectiverangecouldbehundredosfmeters. IncapacitatingEffect:Disruptionof NeuralCoutrolThenatureof theincapacitationis arhythmic-activitysFchronizationof brainneurons thatdisruptsnormalcodicalconkolofthe corticospinalndcorticobulbaprathwaysthrs disruptsnormalfunctioningofthe spinalmotorneuronswhichcontrolmuscleconltlclron andbodymovementsP.ersonsufferingfromthisconditionlosevoluntarycontrolof theirbody.Thiss),nchrcnizatiomnaybeaccompaniebdyasuddenlossofconsciousness andintensemusclespasms.BiologicalTargeUNormaFl unctions/DiseasSetrteThenormalfunctionofthe brainis to controlall formsofbehavior,voluntarycontrolof body,andthehomeostaticpararnete$ofthe organism.Innormalconditions,allthebrain structur€sn,euro[populations,networks,andsingleunitsfunctionwithspecificrhyhnic activitydependingontheincomingsensoryinformatioq infomation fiom mnemonic skuctwes,andsignalsf:romvisceralorgans.Eachsingleneuronprovidesspecific processingofinformation it receivesandformsaspecificpatternofimpulse firing as outgoinginformation.Synchronizationofn€won activity is a natual mechanismofthe brain functionthatusessuchcontrollingprocessesasmotivation,attentionandmemory (experience)in orderto organizebehavior.For example,motivationalprccessesare consideredasactivatingascendingsignalsthat slarchronizethe neuronactivity ofspecific brain structuresandneuronnetworks;this activation/slnchronizationin hrm activates specificformsofbehaviorsuchassexuala, ggressivein,gestiveactivities.
In normalfunctioningthe degreeofneuronal synchronizationis highly controlled.From expedmentsthatrccordtheneuronalactivity iI1differentbmin axeasimultaneouslvin animalsi,t is knownthatcorelationofspikeactivitybetweeneurons(measurebdl the correlationlevelof synchronizationc)hangesdependingontheslageof behavior,m o t i v a t i o n a, t t e n t i o n o, r a c t i v a t i o no f t h e m e m o r y p r o c e s s e s .HowJveru, ndersomeconditions,suchasph)rsicalstress,heatshock,or shongemotionalstress,the l€vel of s),ncbronizationmaybecomehigher,involving nonspecificlargepopulationsofbrain neuronsandtle s)mclronizationmaybecomeuncontrollable.Dependingonatwhich frequencytheslmchronizationrh),thmoccursandhowmany neuonsareinvolved,itmayproducedifferentphysicaelffectsm; uscleweakness,involuntarymusclecontractiols, lossofconsciousness,orintense(tonic)musclespasms. The higherlevel of sl,nchronizationtakesplacein personsaffectedwith epilepsywhentheyexpedencpeeriodicseizuresincetheyhaveapathologicsource(e.g.,frorninjuryto thebrain)ofrh’,thmics)’nchronizationB.ecausetheneurophysiologicalepileptiformsyrchronizatioanrebetterdocumented, describeidn termsof €pileptogenesis.Theneurophysiologicmalechanismsactivein epileptogenesisneurotransmissioTnh.eactuadl ischargehsavebeenrecognized toresultfromaneuronaldepolarizatiosnhiftwith electricasl yrchronyin cellpopulations pa relatedinrnechanismsof thisincapacititingtechnologyrsinvolvechangeisn andneuotransmittearlteEtionsastheyaffectneuionalmembrareconductancesinteractionI.n theprocessofepileptogenesiesi,thersomeneuronsarcdischargingtoo easilyb€causoefalterationsin membmneconductancesor thereis a failureoiinhibitoryro Theionicbasisandbiochemicaslubstiateofthischangeisn membranceonductances. activationhavebeena.reaosfconsiderablsetudybutstill leavemanyquestions unansweredW. hatarcthebasiccellularpropertiesp,resentin nomal cellsandtissuc.rhli c o u l d c o n t r i b u t et o t h e g e n e r a t i o on f a b n o r m a al c t i v i t y ? W h a t p a r t s o f t h e s y s t e m as r elow thresholdandfunctionastriggerel€ments?OneofthecurrenthlTrothesesis involvedwith microcircuitry,interactionisn neocortical andlimbicsystemstructures.’thetriggerelementhasbeenlongattributedtotheCA3pyramidaliells_a hypothesis basedon thc fact that spontaneous)mchto[ousburst dischaxgecanbe establishedinCA3 neuons Somestudiesdescribean intrinsically burstingtype in the neocoftex thatplaysa rolesimilarto thatofCA3 cellsin thehippocampuasndthatofdeepcellsintheplriform cortex.Theintrinsicnatue ofthese -e[cells appearsto be all importantcontnbutorto the establishmentof slnchronizedburstingin theseregions.Anotherapparentrequirementin sucha populationis for a certaindegreeofsynaptic interaction anongneuronss,uchthatdischargoef evenonecellenliststheactivityofits neighbors. Giventhepresenceoftheseburstingcellsandtheoccurrenceofexcitatory interactions arnongthemin normaltissuei,t mayactuallybethemoryhologicsubstratefor epileptiformdischarges.Anotherh,?tothesishasfocusedpaiicularly ontheroleofN-methyl_D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.Variousfactorsregulatethe effcacy ofNMDA receptors:therrparticularlylocalslmapnc In thehippocamputsh,eroleofq
voltage-dependenbtlockadeby magnesiumandmodulationby glycine andpolyamrnes. For exarnple,in thelow magnesiummodel,spontaneouslncluonousburstdischargein hippocampapllramidalcellpopulationsissensitivetoNMDAantagonistsT.hatfinding suggestshatit istheopeningofNMDA channelsb,yrelievingthemagnesiumblockade, thatfacilitatesepileptiformactivity.Significantattentionin theliteratureis alsobeinggivento gamma-aminobutFic acid (GABA) receptorsfor thepotentialrole in controlofexcitability. Changesin GABA inhibitoryefficacycarrleadto importanet ffectsontheexcitabilityofthe system. GABAergicinhibitoryposFsynaptpicotentials(lPSPs)havebeenshownto bequite labi1einresponsteorepetitiveactivationofcorticalcellpopulationsa,smayoccurduring epileptiformdischarge.Scientistshaveshownthat evena smallpercentagechangein GABAinhibitioncanhaveprofoundeffectsonneocodicaelpilsptogenesTish.ese changesin CABAergic inhibition maybe the key to ao explanationofhow repetitive dischargpeattemsgivedsetoictaldischargeF.urthert,hereappeartsobeasignificant increasein excitatoryposts)’naptpicotentia(lEPSP)frequencpyriorto seizueinitiation anobservatiotnhatisconsistenwtithlossoflPSPefficacypriortoictalonset-Theaboveh)?othesedsescribedifferentmechanismosfepileptogenesibsu,tit isquite possiblethatall ofthesemechanismtsakeplace,andtheyreflectlargevarietyoft)?cs of e p i l e p t i cs e i z u r e sT. h e c o m m o np r i n c i p l eo f t h e m e c h a n i s mpsr o p o s e di s t h e c h a n g eo f membranperopeties(i.e.,conductancpee, rmeabilityetc.)ofcertainneuronswhich rcsultsin d€polarizationandburstdischarging.Somefactors(e,g.,tauma) canaffect th€sespecificneuronsandinitiatesynchrcnyforneuronsthatconrol intemalc o m m u n i c a t i o a n n d c o m m u n i c a t i o wn i t h v a r i o u s m u s c l e s ) r s t e m n s o t a s s o c i a t e wd l t h vital functions(i.e.,headbeatingb, reathing)H. ighstrengthpulsedcl€ctricfieldscould alsobe sucha factor.MechanismtoReproducetheDesiredEffectsA p p l i c a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t pi c u l s e s i s a l s o a c o n c e p t u a n l o n l e t h a t l e c h n o l o g t y h a t u s e s electromagn€ticenergyto irduce neurals)’nchronyanddisruptionof voluntarymuscle control.Theeffectivenesosfthis concepht asnotbeendemonstrateHd.oweverf,rompast work in evaluatingthe potentialfor electromagneticpulsegenerato$to aflect humans,it is estimatedthatsufficientlyshongintemalfieldscanbegeneratedwithin thebrainto triggerneurons.Estimatesarethat50to100kv/mfreefieldofverysharppulses(- InS) arerequiredto producea cell membranicpotentialof approximately2 V; this would probablyb€suflicientto triggerneuonsor makethemmoresusceptibleto firing.Theelecfomagneticpulseconceptisoneinwhichaveryfast(nanosecondtimeframe) highvoltage(approximately100kv/m orgreater)electomagneticpulseisrepeatedat thealphabrainwavefrequency(aboutl5 Hz).It isknownthatasimilarfrequencyof pulsinglightcantriggersensitiveindividuals(thosewith somedegreeof light-sensitivity epilepsy)intoaseizureandit isthoughtthatbyusingamethodthatcouldactuallytrigger nerves)’napsedsirectlywithanelectricafliel4 essentiall1y00%ofindividualswouldbe susceptibleto seizureinduction.Thephotic-inducedseizurephenomenonwasbomeoutlo
demonstrabolynDecembe1r 6,1997onJapanestelevisionrvhenhundredosfviewersof apopularcartoonshowweretreated,inadvertently,to photic seizureinduction(fi eure lU. Thephotic-inducedseizurcisindirectiDthattheeyemustrcceiveandtransmitthe impulseswhich initially activatea portion ofthe blain associatedwith the optic nerve. Fromlhatpointtheexcitabjlityspreads porlionstoother of thebrain.Wirhthe electromagneticoncept,excitationis directlyonthebrain,andall regionsareexcitedconcurentlyT. heonsetofsFchony anddisruptionofmuscularconk;l is anticiDatetdo benearlyinstantaneousR.ecoverytimesareexpectedtobeconsistenwtith,ormorerapid than.thatwhichisobservedin epilepticseizures.Timeto OnsetNoexperimentaelvidenceisavailableforthiscortceptH.oweverl,ight-inducesdeizures latencyonsetin photosensitiveepilepticsvariesfrom0.1to aboutl0 secondsB.ecausoef thefactthattheelectdcalimpuls€striggeredby light mustspreadto otherpartsoftho brain,photic-induc€dseizuesareexpectedto havea genemllysloweronsetthanneunl sFchrcny inducedby high-stength pulsedelectricfields.Durationof EffectForepilepticindividualst,het]?icaldurationofa petitmaleventorapsychomoror evenrisI minuteor2,possiblylonger,whilethedurationofagrandmalseizureisI to5minutesI.nanon-epileptiicndividuawl hoisinducedbyel€chomagnetic meanst,hedurationsofthedifferenteventsareexpectedto beroughlythesameastheepileptici[dividual’seventsaftertheextemael xcitationisremoved. TunabilityTherearemanydegreeosfepilepticseizuein diseasepdenons,andit seemsreasonable thatelectromagnetsitcimulationofneuralsyrchronymightbetunablewith regardto tnc anddegeeofbodilyinfluenced,epe[dingontheparameterasssociatedwith thechosen stimulus.Becausethereareno actualdatato build on, thesestatementsmustbeconsideredtentative.It is knownthat in thestudyofphotic-inducedseizues,panmeters canbevariedsothattheindividualunderstudydoesnotactuallyundergoa grandmal seizure.Thisknowledgegiv€sco[fidencethattheproposedtechnologywouid betunable.DistributionofHumatr Sensitivitiesto DesiredEffectsI t i s a n t i c i p a t e t dh a t 1 0 0 % o f t h e p o p u l a t i o nw o u l d b e s u s c e p t i b l eT . h e m e c h a n i s mi s o n e thatcouldactorl manyindividualneuronalcellsconcurrentlyandhencedoesnot depend on spreadingregionsofelectrical activity asin the diseasestate.PossibleInlluenceotrSubjects(s)If thetechnologyfunctionsapproximatelyasenvisioned,thetargetedindividualcouldbe rncapacitatevdery quickly. Becausetherehavebeenno reportedstudiesusingtheI\
conditionsspecified,experimentawlorkisrequiredtochaxacterizeonsettime.Different tlpes of technologiescould be employedto influencewide areasor singleindividuals. Becausethis technologyis consideredto be tunable,the influenceon subjectscould vary ftommilddisruptionofconcentmtiontomusclespasmsandlossofconsciousnesTsh. e subject(s)wouldhavevaryingdegreesof voluntarycontroldependingonthechosen degreeof incapacitation.TechnologicaSl tatusof Generator/AimingDeviceAn electricfieldskengthofroughly100Kv/moveratimeperiodof 1nanoseconids approximatelytheconditionthoughtto benecessaryto producethedesiredeffectwhen providedtoanoverallrepetitionrateof 15Hz.Suchafieldmaybedevelopedusinga radarlike,high-peak-powepru, lsedsouceor anelectromagnetpiculsegenerator operatedat15Hz.Thesetechnologieesxisttodaysufficientoevaluatethedisablingc o n c e p t P. o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t a s r e n o t h i g h b e c a u s t e h e d u t y f a c t o r i s s o l o w . A i m r n g devicesarecurentlyavailableb,utahighdegreeofdirectionalityatlorg distancewsill requiredevelopmenIt,maybenecessartyo provideburstsofthesenanoseconpdulscsin orderto stimulatethe desiredeffect.As the duty time increaseso doesthe averagc powerrequirementfor powersource,Becausetherewerenoopenliteraturereportsfrom whichto makeinferencesth, ereis someuncertaintyabouthepowerlevelsrequired.Ratrge Theeffectiverangecouldbehundredsofmete$. DefeatCapabilities/LimitatiorsShieldingcanbeprovidedbyconductivebarrierslikemetalormetalscreenT.herearca numberofdrugsthatarecapableofinducingconvulsiveseizureasndothersl,ike phenoba6itald, iphenyllhydantoin,trimethadione2,-4dinitrophenoal,ndacetazohunide, which areaoticonlulsive.Anticonvulsivedrugsareknownto behelpful in reducingtheeffectofseizuresin epil€pticpatientsb, uttheirabilityto reducetheeffectofthe proposed technologyis unlinown(possiblyno effect)but expectedto be lessthanfor photic- inducedseizures.IncapacitatingEffect;AcousticEnergyThenatureofthe incapacitationcoNistsof severcprcssuresensationsn,ystagnus(a spasmodici,nvoluntarymotion ofthe eyes),andnauseacausedby high intensitiesof 9140-155dB).Nlstagmusoccruswhenconvectioncurlentsaxeproduced(cupula movement)in thelateralearcanal.This cupulamovementcausestheeyesto move involuntarilyh;encet,heextemawl orldisinterpreteadsmoving.Thesubject’,seesh’i,s surroundingstumingrcundhim andatthesainetimeexperiencesasensationof tuming. Personsexposedto theselevelsof soundexperiencenausea.BiologicalTargevNormalFunctiols/DiseasSe tate7
Thetwolatemlsemicircularcanals,onelocatedin eachinnerear.alertapeNontothef a c t t h a t h i s u p i g h t h e a di s e x p e r i e n c i n ag n g u l a ar c c e l e r a t i o nW. i t h i n t h ; a m p u l l ao f t h e canalareseveraslocalledhaircells.Theciliaofthesecellsprolrudeintothelumenof theampullawherethey{rreencasedin amassofjelly-like material(thecupula)whichis attachedtotheoppositewallofthe canal.Astheheadacceleratest,heciliaarcbentbyan inertialforceofthe cupulaandtheviscousliquidin thecanalumen.Thebendingofihe cilia exciteshaircellswhichin tum exciteafferentneurons;tlese thenalertthebrainthat a changeofpositionofthe headhasoccurredS. imilareventsoccurwhentheheadstops moving.Theresultofa stronghaircellstimulustothebminisarapideyemovement, callnystagmusa,feelingofdizzinessanddisorientation,vomltmg.Normalhearingisintherangebetweenthefrequencieosf20,000to 16,000Hzwiththe optimalsensitivityfor mostpeoplebetweentheftequencieosf500 to 6000Hz.Mechanismto ProducetheDesiredEffectsB e c a u s et h e e n d o r g a n sf o r a c o u s t i ca n d v e s t i b u l a pr e r c e p t i o na r e s o c l o s e l yr e l a t e d , i n t e n s ea c o u s t i cs t i m u l a t i o nc a n r e s u l t i n v e s t i b u l a er f f e c t s T. h e h ] ? o t h e s i si s t h a t t h e soundofnormalintensityproduceosscillationsofthe endolymphandperilynpn, compensatefodrbyoscillationosftheroundwindow.Highintensitysoundproduces eddycunentsw, hicharelocalizedrotationalblockcapiltarypathwaysw, hich,in tum, couldstimulatevestibulareceptorsS.timulationofthe vestibulareceptorms ayleadtonauseandvomitingif thesoundpressurelevelis highenough. Concludethatbothtj(l(lycurrentsandvolumedisplacemensterveto stimulatevestibulareceptorsin humans,whenexposedto highlev€lsofnoise.Onestudyfoundnystagmumin guineapigs€xposedto highlevelsofinfrasoundvia stimulationofthevestibularrecepto$.Howev€rt,hesamelabwasunabletoproduce nystagmuisn humansubjectsat5- and10-seconedxposuretso apuretoneat 135dB, broadbanednginenoise,ora I00HztoneatI20dB,pulsedthreetimes/sor2minutes.T h e s a r n er e s e a r c hw a s u n a b l e t o e l i c i t n y s t a g m u as t l e v e l s u p t o 1 5 5 d B , a n d a l s o e q u a l l y u n a b l e t o p r o d u c e n y s t a g m u us s i n g i n f r a s o u n dl e v e l s o f I l 2 – 1 5 0 d B i n g u i n e a p r g s , monkeys,andhumars.However,researchwith audiblecomponentsin the sound spectrumwithguineapigsandmonkeysproducednystagmusO.therresearchersreport othervestibulareffectsinadditiontonystagmusatthefollowingthresholds:125dBfiom200-500Hz,l40 dBat1000Hz,and155dBat200Hz.Decremertsinvestibula.r tunctionoccurconsistentlyfor broadbandnoiselevelsof 140dB (with hearins prolectlon).Humansubjectslistenedto very high levelsof low-frequencynoiseandinfrasoundin the protectedor unprctectedmodes.Two-minutedurationashigh as 140to 155dB produced a mngeof effectsfrom mild discomfortto severepressuresensations, gaggrng,anda DossibilitvofnauseandfluiddisplacementHs.ighintensitysound ofthe stapesc,ausinga volumedisplacement,canalsoproducenonlineadr isplacement theresultofwhichcanbeafluidvoidinthclaby.inthT. ofill thevoid,fluidmaybe displacedalongtheendollmphaticductand,/ornausea,l3
andgiddiness.Effectsalsoincludedbluned vision andvisualfield distoiions in some exposureconditions.Thenatweanddegreeofall effectswasdependenotnbothsound levelandliequencywith themostsevereeffectsoccurringin theaudiblefiequencyrange (asopposedto infrasound),at levelsaboveabout145dB. Theinvestigatorsfoundno temporarythresholdshift (TTS) amongtheir subjects,andtheuseof hearingprctecton greatlyalleviatedthe adverseeffects.Sincethe earlydaysofjet-enginetestingandmaintenancea,[ecdotalevidencehas appearedlinking exposueto intensenoise,with suchcomplaintsasdizziness,vertigo, nausea,ndvomiting.Asaresultofsirennoiseat140dB,subjectcsonsistentlryeported a feelingofbeingpushedsidewaysu,suallyawayftomtheexposedear,andonesubject reporteddifflculty standingononefoot.Theseeffectswerenot asdramaticasfrom th€jeFengineOroadband)noiseat 140dB. Thisresearcchoncludetshatthethresholdof labyrinthinedysfunctionis about135to 140 dBandthattheseeffectsoccurduring,butnotafter,exposurc.Time to OtrsetNo timesto onsetofnauseaor n)stagmuswerc identified in the literaturebut is presumcd toberelativelyimmediatebasedoneffectstothelabyrinthsystemoccwringduring,but notafter,exposureto soundpressurlevelsof 135to 140dB.Durationof EffectTheincapacitatiolna6tsonlyaslotlgastheincapacitating present. soundisTunabilityBasedonthedatapresenteadbovei,t is uncleawr hetherthedegreeofnauseaor nystagmusis tunable,but similar symptomscausedby other stimuli a.revariablein degre9.DistributionofHuman Sensitivitlesto Desir€dEffectsIt is mostprobablethat all individualswill be susceptibleto this stimuluswith the exceptionofthosewith a diseaseor defect(i.e.,deafmuteso) fsomepartor partsof the vestibularsystem.Datashowedno consistentdecreasein vestibulo-oculareflectswith inoeasedage.Recovery/SafetyNormal subjectsarelikely to recoverimmediatelyandexperienceno or unmeasurable changesin hearingunlesswell known liequency-intensity-timefactorsareexceeded. This is basedon studieswhich found no temporarythresholdshift in hearingof subjects testedatlowfrequency.Occupationaslafetypersonneglenerallyrecognizethat1I5r+
dB(A) is to be avoidedandthat 70 dB(A) is assumedsafe.Is believedthat thenoise energywith predominatingfrequenciesabove500Hz havea greaterpotentialfor hearing lossthannoiseenergyatlowerfrequenciesO.ccupationasltandardsfornoisestatethata personmay be exposedcontinuouslyfor 8 hoursto 90 dB(A) or 15 minutesto I 15 dB(A).PossibleInfluenceon Subject(s)Inductionofnystagmusandnauseawill havevariableeffectsonindividuals.Effectsmaybe sufficiently incapacitationto allow offensiveadvantage; perceptionthe of sicknessmay makea subjectsusceptibleto peFuasion.It would be dilncult to targetsingle individualsatthepresentlevelof sounddirectingtechnology.Thistechnologymaybe bettersuit€dfor goupsofpeople.TechtrologicaSl tatusof Generator/AimltrgDeviceSoundgeneratintgechnologyiswelldevelopebdutnothighlyportableA. imingdcvices arepoorly developed.RrngeUndernormalcircumstanc€sthesoundpressulelevel decrease6s dB(A) whenthed i s t a n c ef r o m t h e s o u r c ei s d o u b l e d F. o r e x a m p l ei f t h e s o r m di s 1 0 0 d B ( A ) a t 1 0 0 I t , a t 200ft thesoundwouldbe94dB(A).At veryhighsoundlevels,certainconditionms ay leadto nonlineareffectsin propagationandgreatlyincreaserangeaccuracy.DefeatCapabiliti€s/LimitrtionsNegativeffectsofaudiblesoundaregreatlydecreaseifdhearingprctectionis wom. High frequencysoundis moreeasilyblockedthanlow frequencysou[d dueto wav€lengtheff€cts.Lrser-hduced BiologicalEffectsTheir arethreebasicdamagemechanismsassociatedwith exposureto laserradiation: chemical,thermal,ardmechanicaolracoustic-mechanical.Thelaser-inducedc,hemicalalteratio$ in irradiatedtissuearereferredto as photochemicadlamage.Thelikelihoodoflaserradiationintheblue-lightportionofthe electromagngtsicpectrum(.380to.550microns)inducingphotochemicalreactions progressiv€lyd€creasewsithincreasingwavelength.Photochemicaelffectsarenotobserveduponexposureto ndiationwith wavelengths exceedin.g550to.650micfonsbecausethekineticenergyassociatedwith thesephotonsis insufficientto initiatea photochemicaclhange.l5
Ontheotherhand,thethermaleffectis aprimaxymechanismfor laser-inducedmJury. Theextentof theinjuriesinduceddependsuponthewavelengthandenergyofthe incidentmdiation,durationofexposurea,ndthenatuleoftheexposedtissueandits absorptiocnharacteristicGs.enerallyt,hismechanismpredominiteisn thevisibleandthe near-infrared(.760to 1.4microns)portionsofthe electromagneticspectrumandfor almostallCWandpulsedexposuresbetween0.1millisecondasndI to 5 seconds.Thethird injury mechanismassociatedwith exposureto laserradiationis themechanical or acoustical-mechanicaelffect.Theradiantenergyis absorbedinto thetissueand,asa resultofrapidthermael xpansiofnollowingashort(l nanosecontdo0.1millisecond) laseradiationpulse,apressurweaveisgeneratedinjury.alsoconsidenr onlineapr henomena fieldeffects.Theorgansmostsusceptiblteo extemalaseradiationaretheskinandeyes.Theseverity ofinjury is affectedby thenatureof thetargett,heenergydensitydeliveredto themrger, thefiequencyandpowerofthe laser,atmosphericattenuationofthe beam,andtheuseof filteringor ampliflng opticsby thetargete, tc.Theprimaryeffectontheskinisthermaldarnage(bums).Theseverityvariesftomslight e r ] , ‘ t h e moar r e d d e n i n gt o s e v e r eb l i s t e r i n go r c h a r r i n g d, e p e n d i n og n s u c h f a c t o r sa s t o t a l energydepositions,kinpigmentationa,ndthetissue,asbilityto dissipateheat.Theeyeisparticularlysusceptiblteointensepulseoflaserradiationbecauseofits unique sensitivityto light.Thefocusingeffectis similarto thatofa magnifyinglens,which focusestbeenergyonaparticularspot.Sincethecomeaandlensofthe eyeamplifythe intensityofthe lightincidenut pontheretina,theretinais extremelysensitiveto visible andnear-inftaredlight, anddamageto theretinamayresultin temporaryor permanent lossofvisualacuity.Lasereyeinjuriesvaryaccordingtoincidenpt ower,spotsize,beam angle,temporalmode(CW or pulsed),andpulserepetitionfrequency.Reportedeffects includecomeallesions,bums,cataractsa,ndretinallesions.Somehigh-powerlaserscancauseantipersonneleffectsby thedepositionof themalenergy.Theselasersmustoperateatawavelengththatisreadilyabsorbedby theskinor thecomea.Thesegenerallyincludethefar-andmid-IRregioru(10to 12micronsand3 to 5 microns)aswell astheultravioletregion(<0.4microns).However.ultraviolet wavelengthsgenerallydonotpropagatewell in theatmospheres,otheprimarythreat wavelengthsto be consideredarebetween3 and l2 microns.Althoughrelativelymodest amountsof far-IRlaserpowerarerequiredtoproducesuperficialbumsontheskinat shortranges,andeffortsto designrheostaticallylethallaserweaponsareon going.Generallya,ll threemechanismosperateconcunentlyin aniradiatedanimal.Thermar effectscurrentlypredominateforcontinuouswave(CW)lasers,whilemechanicaelffects areofincreasedsigrificanceforpulsed-modethatmayresultin explosivetissuelasersW. ithevenhigherpower,onemust suchasmultiphotonabsorptioanndelectromagneticlb
Nonlethalblinding laserweaponsgenerallyusecollimatedbeamswith very low beam divergencea,ndtheenergycontainedinthebeamdiminishesrelativelyslowlyovergreat distancesk.nagilg systemssuchaseyesandEOvisionsystemshavefocusingopticsthat bring the incidentplanewaveof light to focusat the sensorplane.This resultsin a high optical gain (geater than 100,000for eyes),which makesthe associatedsensor luLoerableto relatively low fluencesoflaser energy.Theeffectsof laselson eyesarethreefold:. Dazzlingor inducedg1are…Flashblindinogr lossofnight adaptation. Pemanenot r semipermanebnltinding.Theseverityoflaser eyeinjuriesvariesaccordingto theincidentpower,spotsize,beam anglep,upildiamete(rambienltightconditions)t,emporaml ode(CWorpulsed)a,n<r PRFofthe laser.Reportedeffectsincludecomealbums,catamcts(apemanent cloudinesosfthe lens),andretinalbumsandperfoEtionsf.ow-energylaserweaponsarc capableofcausingthelatter.Exposuetorelativelylowlaserenergiecsanproducetemporarcyhangesintheabilityto seewithout producingpermanenitnjury. Exposue to laserlight canproduceaneffectc a l l € d g l a r e o r d a z z l e w, h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h e t e m p o r a r y l o s s o f v i s i o n e x p e r i e n c we h c o viewingtheheadlightosfanoncomingcar.Thevisualeffectslastonlyaslongasthel i g h t i s p r e s e n i t n t h e l i e l d o f v i e w ( F O V ) . A t s l i g h t l y h i g h e r e n e r g y e x p o s u r e st h, e s a m €laseradiationcansaturateor flashblindthephotoreceptorcells,resultingin afterrmagesthatfadewiti timeafterexposue.Onlyvisibleradiationwill induceveilingglareor aftcr i m a g e s n; e a r – I R r a d i a t i o nw i l l n o t p r o d u c et h e s e e f f e c t s e v e n t h o u g h t h e r a d i a n t e n c r g y reachetshephotor€ceptocrells.Flashblindnesasnddazzlew, hilenotpermanenint ,urrus, cancausediscomforat ndtemporarlyossofvision.Somestudieshaveshowntharuazzle andflashblindnescsanseriouslyimpactmissionperformance,taskssuchaspilotinganaircraftoraiming.Blindingisthepermanenotrsemipermarenltossofvisual acuity.Theeffectcanlasr fiomseveralhou’sonwardandgenerallyisevidencedbyada* spotinthefieldof vision.ThisspotiscalledascotomaT.heimpactofthescotomaonvisualacuitywill varywith thesizeandpositionofthe injury.Humanvisionis greatlyaffectedwhenthe laserdamageis to thecentravl isionareaofthe retinacalledthefovea.Nonfovealaser damagemaybelesssevereorevengounnoticedbecauseit affectsonlytheperipheral vision.Themostseriousretinalinjuriesoccurwhentheincidentlight is sointensethata perforationin theretinais formed,resultingin ahemonhageinto eitherthesubretinal layeror, in themostseverecasest,hevitreoushumorofthe eve.LessseverexDusurcs resultin lesionson theretila.Foot ote:1-(U) This appendixis classifiedFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY in its entirery.especialliyn highlyvisualt.1 It
Idormrtion Cutoff Drtc:17 Februrry 1998.Ecrivcd.fr.i*MCti?l€{sm.6 HrttitF6nFso|ir.+;rd..*!ef D.a€-e$e*4.+{++€s#Ef ,rfr9Fe*ArO{tiihECaADEDUNAjSSFED Fr3 rc_ ON L OjaobT.]s.AINSC$MDY FOVPAA!.afjf8 4.102DOD52fl).lR\B

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