Nanotechnology and Advanced Manufacturing  BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS “OS&H for 21st Century Manufacturing”WestON September 30, 2016

Nanotechnology and Advanced Manufacturing BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS “OS&H for 21st Century Manufacturing”WestON September 30, 2016

Nanotechnology and Advanced Manufacturing“OS&H for 21st Century Manufacturing”WestON September 30, 2016Charles L. Geraci, Ph.D., CIHAssociate Director for NanotechnologyCenters for Disease Control and PreventionNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health The findings and conclusions in this presentation have not been formally disseminated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy Overview• What is Nanotechnology? (Fast, I promise)• Why is it important to NIOSH and to you?• What has NOSH done?• Where have all the Nanomaterials gone?• What is Advanced Manufacturing and why is it a big deal? Nanotechnology: A Review Nanotechnology: 30 Second ReviewOld: Material behavior driven by chemistry and making things from big piecesNanoscale Science: making materials one molecule at a time at the nano scaleNew: Material behavior driven by size, shape, surface chemistry. More active and efficientResult: New material properties and behavior: Higher or newer hazard? Nanomaterial Science: Opening the 3rd Dimension of the Periodic Table ”Carbon just isn’t carbon anymore” Your Grandfather’s CarbonOld New The Nanomaterial designer’s carbon“Built” in the nm range Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs)• Carbons– e.g., nanotubes, nanofibers, fullerene, graphene• Oxides– e.g., metal oxides, ceramics, TiO2, ZnO, SiO2, CeO2, Fe3O4• Metals– e.g., Ag, Fe, Al, Si, Zn, Cu, Ni• Cellulose– e.g., nano fibrils, nano crystals• Semiconductors– e.g., CdSe, CdS, InAs, InP• Polymers/organics– e.g., liposomes, dendrimers NIOSH Response: A Research Program – A blend of lab and fields projects – Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)• Established in 2004 to investigate new nanotechnology related hazards• One of the first agencies to identify that exposures to engineerednanomaterials (ENMs) could cause disease• Pioneered techniques to generate aerosols of engineerednanoparticles for animal testing• First to show that certified respirators and controls can protectworkers• Published practical guidance on measuring exposures and summaries of field results NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center Active in Ten Critical AreasToxicology & Recommendations & GuidanceInternal DoseNTRCMeasurement Methods Informatics & ApplicationsGlobal CollaborationsFire & Explosion SafetyExposure AssessmentEpidemiology & SurveillanceRisk Assessment Controls & PPECentrally managed and coordinated for maximum impact Priority Goals for 2015- 20161. Increase understanding of new hazards and related health risks to nanomaterial workers and expand initial findings2. Expand field investigations and the creation of guidance on hazards, risks, and risk management approaches for workers, employers, agencies and policy makers.3. Support epidemiologic studies for nanomaterial workers including medical and exposure studies4. Assess and promote national and international adherence with risk management guidance.5. Link to Advanced Manufacturing initiative Nanotoxicology Program: Current Directions1. Toxicological Characterization of Emerging Nanomaterials2. Mechanisms of Action of Established Biological Outcomes: Fibrosis and Cancer3. High Throughput In Vitro Assays for Predicting Toxicity: Mode of Action of Nanomaterials4. Occupationally Relevant Exposures/Doses: Partnering With Epidemiology and Industry5. Extra-pulmonary Responses to Respiratory Exposure6. Biomarkers for Exposure and Biological Outcome7. Effect of phys/chem modification on biological response Exploratory Field ResearchExposure Assessment in the Real World Exposure AssessmentNIOSH Performs On-site Research• To date, over 100 visits to 65 different sites• Diversity in sites, materials, and applications• Focused efforts: CNT/CNF, Controls• Evaluate processes and personal exposures• Use and extend existing methods• Partnershipswiththeprivatesectorisakeyto success• Guidanceandrecommendationsgivento employers• Summaryresultspublished Connecting the Key Exposure Assessment Elements Epidemiology Exposure MetricsBiomarkers Exposure Assessment Dose metricsToxicology Assessment Evaluating Physical HazardsAirborne Dust GenerationDry Powder Operations Factors Influencing Airborne DustGenerationHealth Concern DustinessPowder Quantity Type of Operation Engineering Controls Ventilation Safety Concern Recent Activities and Outputs Guidance for Engineering ControlsAssistance for Small to Medium EnterprisesDraft CIB on Silver NanomaterialsOutreach Nanotechnology Guidance Documents DraftDraft Nanotechnology is ‘Alive and Well’The cumulative public in nanotechnology since 2001 is over $24 Billion – matched by private funding.Is EHS important?It is one of the national strategic goals with nearly $900 Million invested.What is still needed?Translation of EHS research into practice! Complicating the Task• Applications research is moving faster that EHS research. Keeping pace with a moving target.• No overt cases of injury or illness reported. Have we been good or lucky?• “Nano has gone stealth”. Its all now Advanced Materials• Reporting and tracking requirements are minimal. Likely• A precautionary approach, though warranted, is difficult to sell. See No. stay that way. Interface of Two Key National InitiativesNanotechnologyandAdvanced Manufacturing Why is this so important to learn about Advanced Manufacturing? Manufacturing: Still a Huge Economic Impact NIST MEP, 2015Average Mfg. wages 24% higherManufacturers contributed $2.17 trillion to the U.S. (NAM News) If U.S. Manufacturing were a separate country, 9th largest economyworldwide U.S. manufacturing fundamentals strong again: 900,000 direct jobs added since recession23 “Industry and Manufacturing in the Future” is not too far off. Focus on AM “Capacity”“Capability Based Customer Fulfilment” Source: The Future of Manufacturing: P. Manenti
Merging InitiativesNanotechnology: AKA Nanomaterial Science—Has Given Rise to——Advanced Material Science Nanomaterials, Nano-bio materials, SyntheticBiology products, Functional materials, and more —All Moving into—Advanced Manufacturing Technology Defining ‘Advanced Manufacturing’We are moving from the Industrial Age to the Information Age, but we still need to make things.How we make things is evolving from mechanical processes to technology based processes.Many of these new processes will use advanced materials created by Nanotechnology Attributes of Advanced Manufacturing• Heavy and increasing use of information technology• Modeling and simulations in manufacturing processes• Closing the innovation to commercialization gap• Flexibility to meet customer need• Sustainable manufacturing (CLG says this must include worker safety) Trends, Examples?• Semiconductors– Foundation of information technology applications – Rapid research to improve performance– New materials and structural technology• Advanced (Nano) Materials– Superior performance properties tuned needs – Enhanced performance; reduced quantities– Computational engineering More Trends, Examples?• Additive manufacturing: Not new but evolving – 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping, Layering andDeposition, Selective Laser Sintering , and more, • Synthetic Biology– Manufacture biological substances from engineered biological systems– Biomanufacturing: using biological templates or processes for manufacture of materials systems The US LandscapeNational Network of Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI) – rebranded as Manufacturing USA– FY 2016 Budget: $1 Billion investment matched by private sector– Create 15 Manufacturing Innovation ‘Centers’ over the next 5 years, as many as 45 in 10 years Where does Advanced Manufacturing Fit? Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP/PCAST)Executive Office of the PresidentAdvanced Manufacturing National Program Office (hosted by DOC – NIST)NSTC – Advanced Manufacturing Subcommittee 31 NIOSH as a collaborator High “Involvement”NNIMergingPoint AMLife Cycle of Two Initiatives. A common Thread? LowNanomaterialsScale Up Early Production Basic ResearchProof of ConceptCommercialization Manufacturing Innovation Institutes so far… America MakesAdditive Manufacturing DOD–Youngstown OHDMDIIDigital Mfg & Design Innovation DOD – Chicago ILLIFTLightweight & Modern Metals DOD – Detroit MIPowerAmericaPower Electronics Manufacturing DOE – Raleigh NCIACMIAdv. Composites Manufacturing DOE – Knoxville TN Integrated Photonics DOD Rochester NYFlexible Hybrid Electronics DODSan Jose, CASmart Manufacturing DOELos Angeles, CAAdvanced Functional Fabrics DODMITAdvanced Tissue Fabrication DOD SolicitationRobots in Manufacturing EnvironmentsDOD Solicitation Additive Manufacturing: a simple view(Subtractive) Additive Manufacturing: Now Market Impact Image source: Lux Research Inc., 2013 Additive Manufacturing Institute: Key Objectives • Advanced/nano materials• Growing numbers• Exposures not well known• Entry barriers are low for smallThe technology is being taught, but does it include health and safety? devicesSkilled workers should be skilled in OS&H. 3D Printing is not just for desk tops. Advanced Composites Institute Profile IACMI, The Composites Institute Knoxville, TNLaunched June 16, 2015Agency sponsor: DOEStartup funding: $70M public, $159M co-investment+344,000 square feet in five core regions regions – composite manufacturing, laboratory, instructional and collaboration space 39 Lightweight & Modern Metals in ManufacturingMany of the metals and processes were under the NNI as a private- public partnerships.• FullEHScharacterization?• Exposure and risk potential? • Safepractices? Digital ManufacturingA new interface between the worker and the intelligent supply chain and the intelligent workplaceHow will the worker deal with:• Distributed manufacturing• Direct interface with supplychain• Advanced interface withmanufacturing processesThe OS&H challenges are not new and are likely a blend of material and process safety, work organization, and stress. Occupational Safety and Health Opportunities• Nanomaterials– Nanometals (powders, additives)– Additives and enablers (CNT, metals)• Complex Environment – Multiple chemicals– Biologicals – Energy• ExposuresandControls – Material Handling•– Emissions– Waste management– Machine maintenanceRisk Management– Distributed workplace– Dominated by small businesses – Communication Thank you!Charles L. Geraci, Jr, Ph.D., CIHAssociate Director for

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