PENTAGON Interpretation using the ECC model Frequency Energy Fields
The main features of the above results on [Na,K]-ATPase have been predicted from computer analyses of the ECC model using eqn. (3) [12-17]. These include the ability of eqn. (3) to absorb energy from an applied field for actively pumping a neutral substrate or an ion, an optimum field strength and an optimum frequency for this effect.
According to the ECC model, only a dynamic electric field (either oscillating or fluctuating) can induce a phenomenological resonance with the enzyme cyclic reation and be effective for energy coupling. An exponentially decaying electric field can be viewed as a fourier sum of many components, each with a characteristic frequency. Among these components are high frequency ones which would be able to induce enzyme turnover within a single electric discharge. This is judged unlikely to be the reason for enzyme turnover as the amplitude of these higher frequency components is bound to be small and the interaction energy (delta M*E) would be insufficient for ATP synthesis.
the mitochondrial ATPase a mechanism exists which can modulate a stationary transmembrane electric field to become locally oscillatory [12-17]. We suggested that the F(o) subunit could fill this role by translocating protons at a defined time interval. When a proton approaches from one side of the membrane and then translocates to the other side, the electric potential experienced by the enzyme would temporarily change its sign, making it oscillatory.
There are many mechanisms for modulating a stationary electric potential. An ion channel, a redox protein, a charge motion, etc. in the vicinity of an energy transducing enzyme can effectively produce an oscillating field under an energy sustaining constant potential